文章摘要
万 勇,冯瑞华,王桂芳.美欧材料基因工程技术政策对比及其启示[J].,2014,(23):.
美欧材料基因工程技术政策对比及其启示
Comparison Analysis and Implications of U.S. and European Materials Genetic Engineering Policy
投稿时间:2014-07-06  修订日期:2014-11-13
DOI:
中文关键词: 材料基因工程;政策;对比
英文关键词: materials genetic engineering; policy; comparison
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
万 勇 中国科学院武汉文献情报中心 430071
冯瑞华 中国科学院武汉文献情报中心 430071
王桂芳 中国科学院武汉文献情报中心 430071
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中文摘要:
      当前新材料的开发主要依靠传统经验式的试错法,致使材料开发无法跟上工业产品的设计和制造步伐。材料基因工程技术是材料科学与工程研究方法的革命。为加速材料研发和应用的速度,材料科学家近年来将芯片制造、高性能计算、同步辐射等多学科尖端科学技术引入到材料研究,使得采用传统方法需要花费数年时间的工作在极短的时间(如一星期)内即可完成。在此背景下,2011年,美国政府率先启动了加速新材料开发应用、保持全球竞争力的“材料基因组计划”。与此同时,欧洲也启动了旨在加速高性能合金研发的“加速冶金”计划。本文对比了这两项计划以及我国相关工作的实施情况,提出了对我国的借鉴意义。
英文摘要:
      Trying to find new materials, to improve the performance of anything from microchips to car bodies, has always been a process of trial and error. Materials genetic engineering technology is revolutionary innovation for materials science and engineering research methods. To accelerate the pace of materials development and application, chip manufacturing, high-performance computing, synchrotron radiation and other multi-disciplinary cutting-edge technologies were introduced into materials research. So that, the processes could be completed in a very short time, instead of several years through traditional methods. In this context, the U.S. government first launched “Materials Genome Initiative” to accelerate the development and application of new materials, and maintain global competitiveness in 2011. Almost at the same time, EU started “Accelerated Metallurgy” project with the aim to faster discover alloy formulations using combinatorial principles. In this paper, the two national policies were compared, and implications to China’s related work were put forward.
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