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  • 1  Research Progress on Shale Gas at Home and Abroad and Shale Gas Resource Potentiality in Shandong Province
    ZHANG Zengqi TIAN Jingxiang ZHANG Chunchi CHENG Guangsuo SUN Weiqing SUN Bin LIANG Jipo
    2012, 28(10):1-6.
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    At present, contradictions between supply and demand of current international energy has becoming more and more outstanding. Energy is increasingly becoming the focus in the world, and exploration and development of shale gas resources has been paid more attention. Shale gas resources are very rich, they are mainly distributed in North America, Central Asia, China, Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa, and the former Soviet Union. In recent years, accompanying with the development of mining and use technologies, exploration of shale gas resources have been carried out in the America, Europe, Asian countries. Shale gas resources are very rich in China. Regional exploration research has been carried out step by step, and has achieved good results. But the overall research and exploration of shale gas is still in starting stage, and have not found the actual hale gas reservoirs. There is still a big gap of technology development between China and abroad. Combining with specific characteristics of different types of organic-bearing mud shale and domestic and international experiences in shale gas exploration, it is primarily regarded that there has a more favorable shale gas resource potentiality in Shandong province. Prospective areas of shale gas in Shandong Province are Cenozoic paleogene Jiyang group, Wutu group and Guanzhuang group, Mesozoic early Cretaceous Laiyang group, Paleozoic Carboniferous - Permian Yuemengou group and Shihezi group. On the basis of considering occurrence strata, shale gas potentiality and feasibility of shale gas development, the potential areas of shale gas in Shandong province have been put forward as follows: Jiyang depression, Linqing depression, Jiaolai depression, Huangxian (Longkou) depression and hidden uplift in southwestern Shandong. Among them, the potentiality in Jiyang depression is the best.
    2  Gas content of gas-bearing shale and its geological evaluation summary
    LI Yu-xi QIAO De-wu JIANG Wen-li ZHANG Chun-he
    2011, 30(2).
    [Abstract](143) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    3  The main progress and problems of shale gas study and the potential prediction of shale gas exploration
    Jiang Fujie Pang Xiongqi Ouyang Xuecheng Guo Jigang Jin Cong Huo Zhipeng Wang Qing
    2012, 19(2):198-211.
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Shale gas means the internal residual natural gas resource in mud-shale,which exists in the form of adsorption,liberation,dissolution,etc.,and is generated in diverse geologic settings in mudstone or shale,and has saturated multiform residual requisitions of rocks and entered the threshold of expulsion yet not being completely expulsed.With the increasing of exploration in North America,Europe and Asia,the research in the reserve characteristics and the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanisms of shale gas has achieved extraordinary progress.However,there are still many problems in the research in shale gas,for instance,the concept of "shale gas" does not express the scientific meaning of shale oil-gas reservoir;there are not a definite genetic mechanism and an effective judgment of shale gas;the distribution and generation of shale gas are not clear and the united method of prescription does not exist.In view of the current cognition of shale gas,the authors prescribe the shale gas resource in China by the critical saturating capacity of residual hydrocarbon and the ratio of oil and gas expulsed by hydrocarbon due to the decline of temperature and pressure in the process of drilling and extracting.
    4  Evaluation of China shale gas from the exploration and development of North America shale gas
    ZHAO Jing-zhou FANG Chao-qiang ZHANG Jie WANG Li ZHANG Xin-xin
    2011, 26(2):1-7,110,117.
    [Abstract](157) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    America is the first country for the commercial shale gas exploration and development in the world.The shale gas yield of America is close to 900×108 m3 in 2009.The high-speed exploration and development of shale gas makes the natural gas reserves of America increase by 40%.Canada is the second country for the commercial shale gas exploration and development in the world,and the exploration and development is mainly in Horn River Basin and Triassic Montney shale,the northeastern British Columbia.In recent years,the exploration and development is also in other provinces.According to the shale gas exploration and development characteristics and successful experience of North America and the geologic characteristics of shale gas forming of China,the revelation for the shale gas exploration and development of China is as follows:(1)shale gas is a kind of great potential resource,it can be explored and developed in the near feature and good economic benefit can be obtained,and therefore it should be paid attention in oil and gas development decision;(2)shale gas reservoir is a widely distributed,easily found,low abundant,difficultly recovered unconventional self-generation self-storage gas reservoir,its exploration and development requires advanced techniques,strict cost control,favorable tax policy and environmental protection policy;(3)the geological background of shale gas forming in China is more complicated than that in North America,and therefore the evaluation of shale gas blocks should establish the standard suitable to the geological conditions of shale gas forming in China.
    5  Research of the petrophysical property of shale gas reservoirs
    董丙响 程远方 刘钰川 易新斌 杨柳 吴玲妍 王蓓
    2013, 28(1).
    [Abstract](146) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    On the basis of studying the literatures at home and abroad,the concept and the evaluation criterion of shale gas reservoirs are introduced according to research methods of conventional reservoirs,and the petrophysical properties of shale gas reservoirs are studied deeply.The formulas to calculate the porosity of shale gas reservoirs and a new shale gas storage and movement model are presented.The method for calculating the brittleness of shale gas reservoirs is also presented,and the shale gas reservoirs are divided into brittle shale and ductile shale,which can provide the foundation for the hydraulic fracturing design of shale gas reservoirs.
    6  The differences of reservoir features between southernmarine shale gas and coal-bearing shale gas in North China
    suncairong tangshuheng weijianguang
    2017, 26(3).
    [Abstract](123) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    7  Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Shale Gas and Exploration Risks in China
    郝情情 孙雨 左银辉
    2013, 34(3).
    [Abstract](127) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    8  The exploration and development situation of World shale gas and development of China's shale gas outlook
    ZHANG Suo-xu
    2013, 22(3).
    [Abstract](144) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    9  Development in researches on shale gas recovery mechanism
    CHEN Tian-yu
    2014, 23(6):14-18.
    [Abstract](131) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Accurate understanding of recovery mechanism is a key to successful exploitation of shale gas. Development in researches on conceptual reservoir models, theoretical models and simulation techniques of shale gas exploration was analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: 1.reservoir model conforming to microstructure of gas shale in China must be established, 2.Deep burial shale gas reservoirs in China are featured by more complicated ground stress environment. Porosity and permeability of gas shale change with ground stress. Ground stress must be considered to research shale gas recovery mechanism 3. Numerical simulation technique must be developed base on shale gas reservoir characteristics in China.
    10  Summary of shale gas research in North American and revelations to shale gas exploration of Lower Paleozoic strata in China south area
    肖贤明 宋之光 朱炎铭 田辉 尹宏伟
    2013, 38(5).
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    北美近10 a来对构造较简单、中-高成熟度(Ro<3.0%)、埋藏较浅地层(<4 000 m)页岩气的形成、赋存与富集机理、评价方法与核心区预测作了大量研究,取得了实质性的进展,并实现了页岩气的大规模工业开发.我国南方下古生界成熟很高(Ro=2.5%~4.0%)、构造改造强烈、现埋藏深度差异大,对于这套地层的页岩气的评价,缺乏相关理论与方法.为规避风险、获得效益,需以北美页岩气研究为借鉴,针对其地质地球化学特点,在广泛开展相关基础研究的基础上,重点发展页岩含气量的现场测试技术与原地气量的定量评价体系,评估勘探开发示范区页岩的资源潜力,确定页岩气的主控因素,为实现我国南方下古生界页岩气的高效开发提供理论指导与方法基础.
    11  Summary of shale gas research in North American and revelations to shale gas exploration of Lower Paleozoic strata in China south area
    XIAO Xian-ming SONG Zhi-guang ZHU Yan-ming TIAN Hui YIN Hong-wei
    2013, 38(5):721-727.
    [Abstract](114) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    In North American,a lot of work had been done on shale gas formation,storage,enrichment,evaluation and core area prediction for gas shale strata with relative simple structure deformations,middle-high maturities (Ro<3.0%)and shallower burial depths(<4 000 m),great achievements have been made,and industrialscale shale gas exploitation have been carried out.The lower Paleozoic strata in China south area are characterized by excessively high thermal maturities(Ro=2.5%-4.0%),strong structure reforming,and great variations of their current burial depths.For the shale gas evaluation of this set of strata,there is lack of available theories and methods.In order to elude exploration risk and obtain benefit,the fundamental researches pointing to these characters should be conducted based on achievements made by North American,mainly including techniques of in situ measurements of gas content in shales and quantitative assessment system of OGIP(original gas in place),evaluation of shale gas potentials of the demonstrated areas or blocks,and determination of the main factors controlling shale gas resources.The purpose of these studies is to provide theoretical guides and technical methods for the high efficient exploitation of shale gas in the Lower Paleozoic strata of China South area.
    12  Characteristics of Organic-rich Shale and Exploration Area of Shale Gas in Guizhou Province
    YANG Rui-dong CHEN Wei ZHOU Ru-xian
    2012, 23(2):340-347.
    [Abstract](130) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    It presented the marine environment at the long term geological time and formed the multi-sequence organic-rich shale under anaerobic deposition environment in the Guizhou province.Based on distribution and thickness of organic-rich shale,we divide into 7 organic-rich shale sequences,such as Sinian Doushantuo Formation,lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation,upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation,lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation,middle Devonian Guanziyao-Huohong Formation,lower Carboniferous Datang Formation,Permian Xixia-Longtang Formation.The shale gas source rocks in the Guizhou are characterized as multi-sequences,large thickness,high organic carbon content,and high thermal maturity.According to thickness and distribution of source rocks,organic carbon content and thermal maturity,we draw three favorable areas of shale gas exploration,i.e.Wuling fold,central-north Guizhou,and Ziyun-Ceheng of Nanpanjiang.The most favorable area of shale gas exploration in the Guizhou province is the Ceheng-Wangmo area in the Nanpanjiang basin.
    13  An overview of shale-gas production
    ZHANG Dongxiao YANG Tingyun
    2013, 34(4):792-801. DOI: 10.7623/syxb201304023
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    China is just starting the industrial development of shale gas due to its great potential in shale gas resources although domestic researches on the comprehensive assessment, production mechanisms and production technologies of shale gas remain immature. Based on the authors' previous investigation and extensive literature search, this paper gives an overview on advances in the research and development of shale gas both at home and abroad, which discusses the following aspects: (1) the comprehensive assessment of shale-gas resources is the first step in shale-gas exploration and development and the key parameters and factors that determine the potential of shale gas are analysed; (2) production mechanisms of shale gas are fundamental to reservoir modeling, numerical simulation and hydro-fracturing design, and therefore, the complex production mechanisms and flow models are summarized. (3) some key technologies applied to shale-gas development, such as horizontal well and hydraulic fracturing, and the intrinsic correlation between reservoir characteristics and technologies chosen are discussed, which provide a reference basis for production optimization; (4) a review of the development history, characteristics and future development expectation of shale-gas resources in China.
    14  The analysis of the shale gas industry development in China
    Gao Yang Luo Ling Li Wenbo
    2015, 24(8).
    [Abstract](160) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Shale gas as a substitute for natural gas to alleviate nervous energy has played a positive role, more and more cause the attention of the countries all over the world. Considered as a whole from the global perspective, this article through to the analysis of shale gas development process, technical level, policies and measures of the American and European, Combining with domestic shale gas reserves, distribution and accumulation resources situation, analyzed the main problems of the current development of shale gas industry of our country, puts forward a series of policy suggestions of attaches great importance to the basis for shale gas geology survey work, speed up the shale gas technology innovation, complete the industrial policy of shale gas, set a reasonable price, pay attention to development and environmental protection coordination, draw lessons from foreign advanced experience of the rapid development of shale gas industry in China.
    15  Accumulation Conditions For Shale Gas and It′s Future Exploration of Silurian in the Central-Upper Yangtze Region
    ZHANG Li-ya LI Yan-xia LI Jing-hong JIN Ya-wen
    2011, 30(6):90-93.
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    16  Optimization of shale gas desorption method in field
    2015, 0(3).
    [Abstract](117) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    17  Construction Technology of Parameter Well for Shale Gas in Chongqing
    XIANG Kun-ming YIN Liang-xian LI Sheng ZHANG Shu
    2014, 41(11):31-33.
    [Abstract](169) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    By the construction practice of parameter well for shale gas, the situation of multilevel wire-line coring technology by coalfield drilling rig applied in parameter well for shale gas is summarized, and the key construction technologies in water sensible stratum are discussed.
    18  Assessment on the environmental benefits of shale gas development and utilization in China
    YU Guohe Wu Qiaosheng
    2015, 24(7).
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](10)
    19  Status and development tendency of shale gas research
    XU Guo-sheng XU Zhi-xing DUAN Liang YUAN Hai-feng ZHANG Wu
    2011, 38(6):603-610.
    [Abstract](120) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Shale gas is a kind of natural gas gathering in free and absorbent forms.At the same time,its resolution mechanism is analogous to coalbed methane(CBM).Due to the different storage characteristics,shale gas can show absorbent mechanism,the piston principle of migration and accumulation mechanism,and the displacement principle of migration and accumulation mechanism.The distribution of shale gas is affected by many elements,such as the thickness and area of shale,the abundance of organic in shale,the strength of gas production,and the crack or pore in shale reservoir.The study of shale gas is late in China.But after comparing reservoir-forming conditions at home and abroad,it is found that there are many basins in China which are analogous to that in the eastern geologic conditions for shale gas formation,especially the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation and the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in South China have favourable reservoir-forming conditions.There are many issues and questions in front of China in studying shale gas.So,the study of the basic theories about shale gas,especially the geologic conditions,the accumulation mechanism,the distribution regularities,the appraisal system,the development technique and so on,will be the main trend in the future comparative long time.
    20  Research Progress on the Desorption Methods of Shale Gas
    2015, 0(9).
    [Abstract](129) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    21  Advances in Exploration and Exploitation Technologies of Shale Gas
    ZHENG Jun-wei SUN De-qiang LI Xiao-yan ZHANG Jia-lin
    2011, 22(3):511-517.
    [Abstract](130) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    The reserve,the distribution as well as the status of exploration and exploitation technologies were systematically investigated.It has become an international hot research field for the technologies of shale gas resource evaluation,reservoir identification and evaluation,fracture prediction,reservoir reconstruction,horizontal well drilling process and so on.The current and future focus of the shale gas will be concerned as follows:shale gas formation mechanism study,the mechanism of accumulation,the effective identification shale gas,shale gas producing formation fracturing,horizontal wells and multilateral well technology.China’s shale gas development in general is still in its infancy,the current main task is to evaluate the amount of resources and a favorable target area preferred,as well as key technology to carry out experimental pilot study.China need to further strengthen shale gas accumulation mechanism and mode of study,to increase technology research of shale gas exploration and development,to development pilot projects,to increase the national policy on R & D support and to strengthen international exchange and technical cooperation.
    22  Efficient development of Shale gas in China
    Guo Hong Li Ling Yang Zhen Ji Wancheng
    2010, 30(12):110-113. DOI: 10.3787/j.issn.10000976.2010.12.027
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    There is an upsurge in the development of shale gas in nowadays China. To get a better view on the shale gas development, this paper analyzes good advantages for that in the USA and the current situation of that in China and makes comparison of the conditions of shale gas development between the two countries from aspects of resources, technologies, and policies, etc.. Results show that except for the resources reserves, there is a large gap between the USA and China in terms of natural environment, burial depth (reservoirs), developing technologies, pipelines, government policies, and so on. In addition, parameters in the domestic development of coalbed methane gas and low permeability sandstone gas taken as reference, an economic assessment made on the shale gas exploitation shows that no economic benefit will be achieved under the present gas price in China. Therefore, some positive suggestions are presented as follows: a. resources evaluation should be developed and the related standards should be worked out; b. foreign cooperation should be more encouraged and more advanced technologies should be introduced from abroad; c. more preferential policies should be enacted to back up the shale gas development.
    23  Development characteristics of organic pore in shale gas reservoir of Wufeng Formation-Member 1 of Longmaxi Formation in Pingqiao block,Fuling shale gas field
    Chen Manfei He Sheng Yi Jizheng Zhang Baiqiao Shu Zhiguo He Chencheng Yang Rui Dong Tian
    2019, 40(4):423-433. DOI: 10.7623/syxb201904004
    [Abstract](170) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](15)
    As the important pore type of shale gas reservoirs, nano-organic pores are relatively developed in the marine-rich organic shale of the Upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation and Member 1 of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation (Long 1 Member) in Pingqiao block of the second production phase of the Fuling shale gas field. Using the argon ion polishing-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Image-Pro Plus statistical software and gas physic adsorption experiments, this study observes and statistically analyzes the shape, number and pore size distribution of organic matter pores in 14 shale core samples from different small layers of the Wufeng Formation and Long 1 Member of Well JY-B in Pingqiao block, and also calculates out the organic surface pore rate. The FE-SEM is used to observe the organic pores of shale samples in Wufeng Formation, of which the shape is mainly polygonal with edge shrinkage. The shale samples in the lower section of Long 1 Member are mostly irregularly elliptical and nearly circular, while those in the upper shale have a flattened elliptical shape, irregularly near-round and elongated. The organic pore size of shale samples is mainly between 5 and 600 nm, and the pore size of organic pores is between 5 and 30 nm. The number of organic pores with the pore size of 100-600 nm is relatively large in the shale of Long 1 Member. The average single-particle organic matter surface pore rate of Wufeng Formation (Layer 1) and the lower part of Long 1 Member (Layer 3) is relatively large, followed by Layer 7 and 8 of the upper Long 1 Member. The organic matter surface rate of Wufeng Formation, the upper Long 1 Member and the upper shale samples have different positive correlations with the total organic carbon. The gas-adsorption experiments show that the cumulative pore volume of the pores of 0.3-10 nm in shale samples has a good linear positive correlation with the total organic carbon, indicating that the organic pores in this part are dominant. The development characteristics and differences of organic pores in three sets of shale intervals are related to shale organic carbon content, mineral composition and structural extrusion.
    24  Geological conditions of the Jurassic shale gas on the northern margin of Qaidam Basin
    REN Shoumai BAO Shujing ZHANG Yi PAN Hongfeng GUO Tianxu ZHOU Zhi
    2016, 35(203):204-210.
    [Abstract](131) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Jurassic shale is one of the main hydrocarbon source rocks in Qaidam Basin and possesses the geological conditions for the formation of shale oil and gas. Eleven samples collected from the surface outcrops of Jurassic shale near some coal mines on the northern margin of Qaidam Basin such as Yuqia, Dameigou, Xiaomeigou, Kaiyuan, Lvcaogou and Datouyang. The authors carried out single multi-parameter experimental analysis of these samples and investigated the relationship between the organic geochemstry, petrophysical properties and gas content of lacustrine shale. On such a basis, the shale gas resource evaluation parameter system was established. The results show that the northern margin of Qaidam Basin was characterized by shallow lake - semi-deep lake lacustrine sediments in Jurassic, with well-developed fractures. During that time, shale was rich in organic matter, and had such characteristics as low porosity, low permeability, low maturity, low brittleness, and high gas content, thus having geological conditions for the formation of shale oil and gas. Further exploration and development of Jurassic shale should choose shale gas areas with high formation pressure coefficient, relatively favorable storage conditions and high content of brittle minerals.
    25  Influence Factors of Shale Gas Resources in Our Country
    SHI Changying WANG Feng QIN Na WANG Hui
    2014, 0(4):58-61.
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Facing the energy shortage in the world,as a new field,shale gas gets the attention of the coun-tries all over the world.Our country is rich in shale gas resources,many basins and regions has the geolog-ical conditions of mass accumulation of shale gas.Thus,the research on shale gas is very important.In this paper,shale gas resource reserves,distribution and facing problems in our country have been intro-duced,and geological characteristics have been summarized as well.On these basis,influencing factors of shale gas in our country have been studied.It is regarded that the shale gas of our country is mainly affect-ed by the organic carbon content,maturity,degree of development of the crack and formation pressure. Shale gas and coal bed methane natural gas belong to the same unconventional gas.Its chemical speciation, genetic type,enrichment regularity are similar to coal bed methane gas,so a comparative study of shale gas and coal bed methane gas can be carried out.
    26  Research progress and problems of shale gas resources in Hunan
    HE Hong-sheng HE Da-fang LI Zhi-neng
    2013, 22(3).
    [Abstract](121) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    27  Research progress of numerical simulation models for shale gas reservoirs
    WANG Qiang YE Mengni LI Ning YE Yufeng DONG Jiaxin
    2019, 46(6):1284-1299.
    [Abstract](144) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    The exploration and development of low grade oil and gas resources which have become important alternative resources in China have made great breakthrough. Research on numerical simulation of shale gas is helpful to realizing the dynamic process of shale gas development, laying a technical foundation for understanding seepage law of shale gas, optimizing mathematical model and evaluating as well as predicting productivity. Based on intensive investigation of literature from China and abroad, this paper systematically expounds the research progress of numerical simulation methods of shale gas and summarizes advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Shale gas numerical simulation models can be divided into equivalent continuous medium model, discrete fracture network model and mixed simulation model. The equivalent continuum model is simple in principle, pursues the macroscopic equivalent, neglects the true flow mechanism inside the reservoir, and is hence suitable for homogeneous shale gas reservoirs with low development of fractures. The discrete fracture network model accurately can reflect the porous flow characteristics of complex fracture networks and describe the objective regularity of highly discrete fractures and is hence suitable for shale gas reservoirs with completed exploration and high fracture development. The mixed simulation model combines the advantages of these two models to accurately reflect the complex fracture network and fluid migration law, meet the calculation accuracy, and save a lot of computing resources. With the improvement of computing and processing capabilities, the mixed simulation model is the future development trend. Finally, various problems in the numerical simulation model of shale gas reservoir are analyzed, and the development trends of shale gas numerical simulation are pointed out.
    28  Influence Factors of Shale Gas Resources in Our Country
    SHI Changying WANG Feng QIN Na WANG Hui
    2014, 30(4):58-61.
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Facing the energy shortage in the world, as a new field, shale gas gets the attention of the countries all over the world. Our country is rich in shale gas resources, many basins and regions has the geological conditions of mass accumulation of shale gas. Thus, the research on shale gas is very important. In this paper, shale gas resource reserves, distribution and facing problems in our country have been introduced, and geological characteristics have been summarized as well. On these basis, influencing factors of shale gas in our country have been studied. It is regarded that the shale gas of our country is mainly affected by the organic carbon content, maturity, degree of development of the crack and formation pressure. Shale gas and coal bed methane natural gas belong to the same unconventional gas. Its chemical speciation, genetic type, enrichment regularity are similar to coal bed methane gas, so a comparative study of shale gas and coal bed methane gas can be carried out.
    29  Favorable depth zone selection for shale gas prospecting
    Lin Lamei Zhang Jinchuan Liu Jinxia Long Pengyu Tang Xuan
    2012, 19(3):259-263.
    [Abstract](132) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    In view of existing difficulties in deciding the shale gas favourable region,three important steps are proposed which should be considered especially in vertical,and the characteristic value of corresponding parameters are put forward.(1)Make the exploration threshold depth clearly and definitely.According to basic model,gas generation threshold of typeⅠ,typeⅡ1,typeⅡ2 and type Ⅲ organic matter’s Ro are ordinally 1.2%、0.9%、0.7% and 0.5%.(2)Determine the threshold gas content in different depth.According to the statistical analysis of gas producing shale formation parameters in America,the gas content threshold in 1000 m,2000 m and 3000 m depth are ordinalty 0.5 m3/t,1.0 m3/t and 1.5 m3/t.(3)Determine the approved shale.According to the research on Longmaxi shale of Lower Silurian in southeast Chongqing,if we want 1.0 m3/t gas content,the TOC of shale in the depth of 500 m,1000 m and 2000 m must be ordinally more than 1.4%,1.1% and 0.9%.
    30  Shale gas resource potential assessment in Jiangsu region
    2014, 23(14).
    [Abstract](170) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](16)
    It is considered that Jiangsu Lower Yangtze region is a favorable shale gas prospective area, through analyzing the structural sedimentary evolution characteristics of Jiangsu basins as well as organic matter abundance, genre and maturity of source rocks. Especially for Tertiary system, lower cretaceous, Permo-carboniferous in Xuzhou region, the Permian in north Jiangsu and Mesozoic-Paleozoic in south Jiangsu, the abundance of organic matter meet the shale gas accumulation standard. Therefore, it is supposed that these blocks can be used as important areas for shale gas exploration.
    31  Discussion on methods of shale gas exploration evaluation
    Liu Chaoying
    2013, 0(5).
    [Abstract](130) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    32  Opportunities of nonferrous metals industry in the shale gas revolution
    WANG Xuguang WU Chunping
    2014, 66(3):1-5.
    [Abstract](164) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Abstract: Shale gas is a kind of unconventional energy trapped in low-permeable shale. Due to technological breakthroughs, shale gas is becoming a new darling energy and changing the world''s energy security and geopolitical landscape. The shale gas revolution has begun. More than 30 countries around the world are investing in exploration and development of shale gas. The proven reserves of shale gas in China ranks first in the world now. In order to ensure energy security, change the energy structure and ease pressure on the environment haze, shale gas has been developed as a national strategy in China. The development of the global status of shale gas is described. The shale gas development strategy and influencing factors in China are pointed out. It is considered that the technical reserves of nonferrous metals industry such as seismic exploration, micro-seismic imaging, fracturing fluid preparation and its application, casing plastic reinforcement, blasting fracturing and other aspects can technically support the shale gas revolution by analyzing the core technologies of shale gas development and the related fields of nonferrous metals industry. A shale gas development technical tree of nonferrous metals industry is drawn. The nonferrous metals industry should embrace the new challenges ahead of the layout and increase R & D investment in the face of new opportunities brought by the shale gas revolution.
    33  Thinking about China's Shale Gas Industry
    You Shenggang Guo Qian Geng Xiaojin Zeng Chunlin
    2014, 43(12):3-7.
    [Abstract](127) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4)
    As clean energy,shale gas have gained widely attention in recent years.Successful experience in North American shale gas revolution,accelerates the pace of exploration and development of shale gas in global.China has huge energy demand on shale gas resource.But the shale gas industry of china is still in its infancy stage,and the successful experience in North America can be taken as reference for the development of the shale gas industry.Therefore,the history of the exploration and development of shale gas in North America is recalled,and the policy and the market environment for supporting the exploration of shale gas in North American are described.A contrast on the development status of shale gas industry in our country is made with the successful experience of American shale gas revolution.Several suggestions on the development of China's shale gas industry are given,including technique introduction jointing with innovation,idea changing in the subsidy,opening markets further,and implementation of legally quit for the conventional oil and gas blocks.Based on the situation of our resources,the geological conditions and the policy,and contrasting with the successful experience in exploration and development of shale gas at overseas,it is believed that China will has a good prospect in exploration and development of shale gas.
    34  Classification and characterization of gas shale pore system
    YU Bingsong
    2013, 20(4):211-220.
    [Abstract](135) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    35  Shale Gas and Its Significance for Exploration
    ZHANG Jin-chuan WANG Zong-yu NIE Hai-kuan XU Bo DENG Fei-yong ZHANG Pei-xian YIN Yi GUO Hua-qiang LIN Tuo ZHANG Qin ZHANG De-ming
    2008, 22(4).
    [Abstract](114) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Unlike the conventional concept of hydrocarbon in fractures,the current definition of shale gas is the absorbed and free gas accumulation that exists in mudstone and/or shale layers with autogenic gas.Gas accumulation in shale is of many particular geological characteristics,some of which are self-generation and self-reservation,absorption accumulation,subtle aggregation,and so on.Exploration and exploitation for shale gas have achieved great success in USA in which shale gas has become one of the three economic types of unconventional gas with pervasive exploration value and profitable industrial exploitation.Many basins and regions in China are of favorable geological settings for shale gas,and the research on shale gas develops quickly.In contrast with the geological condition in the eastern USA,the southern China has the favorable geology conditions for shale gas exploration.It is important and significant to research and explore shale gas in China.
    36  Directional Technology of Shale Gas Horizontal Wells in Fuling Area
    WEN Tao WANG Wei TANG Jun
    2016, 43(7):49-51.
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    As the first national shale gas demonstration area, Fuling shale gas productivity demonstration area was started in 2012. Through continuous technological research and innovation, a perfect domestic horizontal well drilling technology series has been formed. With blocks transfer in 2015, the geological conditions became more complex, new technical difficulties were encountered in directional construction. On the basis of the existing mature technologies, by the technology optimization and the application of advanced friction and torsion reducing tools, the construction difficulties in new blocks have been effectively solved, which promotes the construction of shale gas productivity zone.
    37  @@
    2015, 0(3):1-3,8.
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    38  Development of the Fracturing Fluid Applied in Shale Gas Extraction
    LI Yuan-ling YANG Gan-sheng ZHU Chao-fa YANG Hai-yu
    2014, 41(10):13-16.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3)
    As an unconventional energy, shale gas is widely distributed with abundant reserves. However, because of the low porosity and low permeability in reservoir, shale gas has not been large-scale extracted. Until the past 20 years, shale gas mining technology is developing rapidly, which is mainly due to the progress of hydraulic fracturing technology. Fracturing fluid is an important part of the hydraulic fracture treatment and its performance directly affects the success of hydraulic fracturing. Based on the investigation of domestic and abroad literatures, combining with the developing course of fracturing fluid technology in China, the advantages, adaptability and existing problems of several commonly used fracturing fluids in shale gas exploitation are analyzed, and 2 new anhydrous fracturing technologies are summarized. Combined with the particularity of the shale gas reservoir and fracturing technology development status in China, suggestions suitable for China's shale gas fracturing fluid technology development are put forward and the importance of paying attention to environmental protection in the preliminary stage of shale gas is emphasized.
    WANG Dongdong MEI Haiyan YANG Long YUAN En
    2017, 36(2). DOI: 10.3969/J.ISSN.1000-3754.2017.02.025
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    In the several previous calculating methods of the recoverable reserves of the shale gas,the pressure drop method doesn't consider the particularity of the shale gas reservoirs,the method of the production decline curve is only adopted to the wells that the production decline has occurred,the method is also not applicable to the shale gas reservoirs with low porosity and permeability although the controllable reserves are obtained by the static formation pressure and recoverable reserves are acquired as well.The method seeding the production indicative curve was proposed by means of the production data acquiring the controllable reserves of the shale gas reservoir,and furthermore taking advantage of the consideration of the adsorbed-gas material balance equation,the recoverable reserves under the abandonment pressure were calculated.The study achievements show that for every 1 MPa reduction of the abandonment pressure,the recovery is about enhanced by 3.4%.This method can not only be applied to the producing wells which production begins to decline,but also be adopted to the steady production wells that the gas flow has reached pseudo-steady state.The method possesses a certain application value.
    40  Calculation Methods of Shale Gas Reserves
    LI Yan-li
    2009, 20(3).
    [Abstract](121) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    41  Abnormal overpressure and shale gas preservation
    ZHANG Jian LIU Shu-gen RAN Bo YE Yue-hao WANG Zi-jian QIU Jia-wen
    2016, 0(2):177-187. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-9727.2016.02.04
    [Abstract](127) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    High production shale gas reservoir is characterized by overpressure coefficient.The abnormal high pressure formation mechanism and failure mechanism of conventional and unconventional reservoirs are studied so as to explore the relationship between shale overpressure and shale gas preservation.Focus is put on the research of different phases of sediment,buried depth and uplift,as well as on the analysis of formation and destruction of abnormal overpressure in the Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation of Well JY-1 in Sichuan Basin.Comparison is also made with the Barnett shale and domestic related drilling wells in order to analyze its fraction of TOC>2% of effective thickness, maturity,brittle minerals,etc.It is recognized that large number of deposition of organism is the premise of formation of abnormal overpressure. These organism materials exhaust volume of hydrocarbon as the buried depth increases and the self-sealing behavior of shale help bring about the formation of abnormal overpressure.Normal destructive mechanisms have little influence on the overpressure of shale because of the self-sealing behavior of shale,but some macroscopic destructive mechanisms,such as strong uplift,overgrown faults,bad bottom and top beds can influence it inch by inch.Micro-fractures along stressed surface caused by change of fluid pressure make the fluid diffusion and improve the influence of macroscopic destructive mechanisms.Tectonic setting and sedimentary environment control the capacity of shale gas and sedimentary facies play a more decisive role.
    2015, 0(4).
    [Abstract](123) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    43  Review of Key Technology for Shale Gas Exploration and Development
    JIANG Guo-sheng WANG Rong-jing
    2013, 40(1):3-8.
    [Abstract](156) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    In the current situation, the imbalance between supply and demand of international energy is increasingly prominent, the exploration and development of shale gas resources becomes the focus of world attention. Shale gas is an ultra-low permeability unconventional gas; there are many key technologies in its exploration and development. The paper introduced the related sealed coring and the hold pressure sealed coring technologies, horizontal well technology and fracturing technology, and put forward the suggestion of developing related technologies for shale gas exploration and development in China.
    44  Parameters and Method for Shale Gas Reservoir Evaluation
    ZHANG Wei-dong GUO Min JIANG Zai-xing Beijing China .Faculty of Petroleum Engineering China University of Petroleum Dongying China)
    2011, 22(6):1093-1099.
    [Abstract](113) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Shale gas is globally developing.Since shale reservoir has its own unique characteristics,the key for shale gas development is to understand the characteristics of shale by means of logging,core analysis and laboratory experiments,in order to find favorable prospect area of shale gas.In this paper,we list some of the key parameters for shale gas evaluation,such as shale thickness,total organic content(TOC),hydrogen index(IH),kerogen type,thermal maturity(Ro),mineral composition and permeability.We also intr...
    45  Summary of Shale Gas Investigation Well Construction Technology in Guizhou Province
    SONG Ji-wei LI Yong
    2013, 40(8):26-30.
    [Abstract](152) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    46  Potential Evaluation of Shale Gas Resources in Upper Paleozoic in Shandong Province
    ZHANG Chunchi PENG Wenquan GONG Gu ZHANG Hui WANG Linlin ZENG Aiping
    2018, 34(8).
    [Abstract](146) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](9)
    以山东省上古生界海陆过渡相富有机质泥页岩为研究对象,对泥页岩的沉积环境、厚度及分布、有机质类型及含量、有机质演化程度等资料进行分析,认为石炭-二叠纪山西组和太原组泥页岩发育厚度大而稳定,有机质类型以Ⅲ型为主,镜质体反射率一般在0.7%~1.7%之间,有机碳含量一般在1.5%~9.0%之间,是页岩气主要富集层位。以含气量不小于0.5m3/t、镜质体反射率不小于0.5%、有机碳含量平均不小于2.0%等为资源量评价标准,建立有机碳含量与含气量关系模型,估算山东省上古生界页岩气潜在地质资源总量为5 736.75×108 m~3,明确了具有勘查价值的区域有鲁西南含煤区、黄河北含煤区、阳谷-茌平含煤区和临清坳陷,为山东省上古生界页岩气下一步勘查指明了方向。
    47  Present Status and Development Strategies of Shale gas industry in Chongqing areaYOU Shenggang1,3, GUO Qian1, GENG Xiaojin2,3, WU Yanting1,3, Zeng Chunlin3
    YOU Shenggang GUO Qian GENG Xiaojin Wu Yanting Zeng Chunlin
    2015, 24(7).
    [Abstract](125) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Shale gas development strategy has important practical significance to solve the shortage of energy, to optimize energy structure, to alleviate pressure of reducing emissions and to achieve green development. Chongqing as the main area of China"s shale gas development is rich in shale gas resources, the amount of shale gas resource ranked third in our country. This paper reviews the research progress of shale gas exploration blocks in Chongqing area, and noted the presence problem, including shale gas resources is unclear, "the exhaustive flowering" is difficult, imperfect support policies, environmental pressure, natural gas pricing mechanism unreasonable, technical services market is not perfect during shale gas industrialization. For some of the existing problems, making a series of suggestions, such as increasing investment; promoting the constructing of Fuling shale gas demonstration area; making clear policy support direction; building environment evaluation index, strengthening environmental regulation; exploring new ideas to reduce costs ; fostering technical services markets.
    48  Study on unstable pressure propagation of shale gas reservoir
    Jiang Baoyi Li Zhiping Diwu Pengxiang Wang Jianning Gan Huohua
    2015, 24(6).
    [Abstract](118) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Shale gas reservoirs have become a new hot spot in the global oil and gas exploration and development. Given the special geological characteristics and formation features, propagation and influences are not stable and not be fully understood as conventional reservoirs. In this paper, considering starting pressure gradient and occurrence, we built a composite model, and used the non-homogeneous virtual Bessel function to solve the complex mathematical model. Then using the results, we analyzed the shale gas unsteady pressure propagation law and several influencing factors, such as wellbore storage coefficient, permeability, skin factor, starting pressure gradient, desorption compression coefficient and gas production factors. The result shows that shale gas reservoir with low permeability of the composite region, wellbore storage coefficient, permeability of inner zone region, inner region radius and the desorption coefficient of compressibility are sensitive factors.
    49  Potential Analysis on Shale and Gas Resources in Northern Weifang Depression
    JI Honglei LIU Li LIU Pengfei
    2017, 33(1).
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Through analysis on formation conditions of dark shale thickness, organic matter type, abundance and maturity of shale and gas in the second section of Kongdian formation in Weibei depression, it is showed that shale in the second Kongdian formation in Weibei depression was formed in the shallow lacustrine facies deep lacustrine environment. The thickness of dark shale is large, organic matter content and maturity are high, and buried in shallow part. It has shale and gas formation conditions and is favourable for the formation of shale gas exploration in the Shandong province.
    50  Progress and prospects of autonomization of technology and equipment for shale gas development
    XIN Shiyu GAO Wenjin GUO AIbin
    2015, 24(12).
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    This paper outlines domestic and international situations for shale gas developing equipment, especially elaborates the autonomization progress in China, discusses the intelligent measurement tool, downhole motor, rotary steering tool, geo-steering tool for shale gas horizontal wells drilling, hydraulic jet tools, multilevel fracturing tools for fracturing stimulation in aboard, and drilling rigs, fracturing equipment, packer and sliding bush, logging equipment, LWD and rotary steering tool domestically. We suggest developing special drill rigs which are suitable for different geology and resource conditions, down-hole speeding tools, directional tools, and fracturing tools made of high polymer materials for mass production of shale gas in the future.
    WANG Li-bo ZHENG You-ye
    2012, 14(3):24-30.
    [Abstract](130) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Energy conservation and emission reduction is a nation’s strategy to change economic development way and an unavoidable path to a sound economy.Shale gas as a clean and green energy has been mined in the U.S,but at starting in China.To speed up shale gas exploration and development will play a big part in energy conservation and emission reduction and mitigating a shortage of energy.This paper,based on China’s shale gas data and field investigation and a comparison with that in the North America,presents a big shale gas potential from structures,geochemistry,geology and enrichment in China,and classified China into four regions of good prospecting,especially in southern China’s Paleozoic marine facies organic shale.
    52  Golbal Shale Gas Development Pattern and Policy Review
    WU Xi-shun SUN Zhang-tao SHU Si-qi YANG Tian-tain
    2015, 24(6).
    [Abstract](124) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4)
    53  Summary of shale gas evaluation applying geophysical logging
    HAO Jian-fei ZHOU Can-can LI Xia CHENG Xiang-zhi LI Chao-liu SONG Lian-teng
    2012, 27(4):1624-1632.
    [Abstract](119) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    54  Development Status of the Shale Gas Geophysical Prospecting Technology
    YUAN Gui-qin
    2013, 49(5):945-950.
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract: In recent years, the shale gas industry has received much attention in many countries, especially the rapid development of shale gas in North America has changed the world's energy supply pattern. The huge potential of shale gas resources in China has accordingly attracted great concern of the government and related enterprises. Shale gas reservoirs are characterized by high natural gamma, low acoustic velocity, low density and high resistivity, serving as the basis for the identification and evaluation of shale gas exploration geophysical technology. The current shale gas exploration and development in our country is in its starting stage, and the main task is the optimization of favorable target areas, resource quantity evaluation and key technology tests. Through analysis of the geophysical technology development situation, it is suggested that the geophysical exploration technology is critical for shale gas reservoir evaluation and production capacity-increasing. We should focus on the establishment of shale gas reservoir logging evaluation methods and standards, as well as strengthening research of shale gas reservoir seismic data anisotropic treating and multi-wave inversion technologies. China should increase investment to shale gas exploration work, combine the basic research with the development of key technologies, combine the successful experiences of foreign countries with our own independent innovative research and development, and then deploy basic investigations and assessment of shale gas resources. We should thus establish an evaluation system of shale gas geophysical exploration suitable for China's geological characteristics.
    AN Xiao-xuan HUANG Wen-hui LIU Si-yu JIANG Huai-you
    2010, 12(2).
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    56  Gas content of gas-bearing shale and its geological evaluation summary
    LI Yu-xi QIAO De-wu JIANG Wen-li ZHANG Chun-he
    2011, 30(203):308-317.
    [Abstract](143) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Shale gas is one kind of natural gas that has been generated but remained in source rocks at the state of free or absorbed. The shale gas content is the key factor for shale gas assessment and core area evaluation. There are several factors of shale layers that affect the shale gas content, including TOC, Ro, pressure, temperature and moisture. Well site, laboratory, and mathematical techniques used to determine absorbed gas content, and well logs are used to determine free gas content. Evaluation of shale gas reservoirs need even more factors, the factors in the aspects of shale geologic factors such as thickness and depth, rock type and lithologic composition, microfacies and organic geochemistry factors; reservoir factors such as porosity, permeability, rock mechanics factors and sensitive factors; absorbed gas content, free gas content, total gas content, etc. Development of an effective system integration approach, comprehensive analysis, evaluation of shale gas resource potential and prediction of favorable areas are constantly being explored currently.
    57  Advances in Characterization of Pore System of Gas Shales
    JIAO Kun YAO Suping WU Hao LI Miaochun TANG Zhongyi
    2014, 20(1):151-161.
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    Shale gas is the free, adsorbed and dissolved gas accumulated in dark shale beds. The nature of pores is a key factor to decide gas storing of shale gas reservoir. The structure of gas shales pores is complex, and the pore diameters are mainly in nano-scale. The methods used in conventional gas system study cannot explain high production of shale gas systems in USA. The characterization of nanopores in gas shales plays a key role in shale gas system evaluation. The studies of nanopores in gas shales are reviewed and compared with each other. There are three kinds of shale gas system characterization: (1) Image analysis is based on a stereological analysis, using various types of microscopes such as scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM), scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscopes (AFM); (2) Intrusive methods are based on gas adsorption, mercury porosimetry, and calorimetric methods; (3) Nonintrusive methods are based on radiation scattering, wave propagation, positron lifetime spectroscopy, etc. Image analysis can obtain the morphologic information directly, rapidly and conveniently. Intrusive methods have advantages in characterization of fractal features of pore system. Because of in-situ, non- invasive analysis and high penetrability of neutron and X-ray, nonintrusive methods can simulate the pore system evolution under multi-geological settings. As each method has its own advantages, multi-scale detection using multi-technology is recommended in shale gas pore system characterization.
    58  New Well Type of Shale Gas Development
    ZHAO Wan-fu
    2014, 41(10):9-12,25.
    [Abstract](148) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    China has large population with insufficient water and land and varied geomorphology, shale gas reservoir has the characteristics of deep burial, high dimension, low permeability and poor alterability. The application of horizontal well and multi-interval fracturing techniques have certain limitations in China, which are conventional techniques for shale gas development in America. For this reason, a new type of development well is proposed. Being different to traditional vertical, deviated or horizontal wells, it is formed with the main shaft and the surrounding auxiliary caves. The main shaft is designed for production, the auxiliary caves are for reservoir stimulation. The completion methods of main shaft can be vertical well or deviated well, the auxiliary caves are branch directional well or cluster wells and may be the combination of the two. For the reservoir stimulation, the cost-effective cumulative blasting technology is adopted in place of the high-cost of hydraulic fracturing; taking multi-cave in place of multi-stage fracturing and simultaneous fracturing in order to keep the continuity and effectiveness of reservoir fracture system, expand the effective drainage area and reduce the spacing density. To simulate the effect of reconstruction, an experiment was carried out on the hard concrete pavement, the result shows that by a number of caves and vibration, interconnected fissures can be produced to achieve the overall improvement of reservoir permeability.