中国地学期刊网

火山专题

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  • 1  Research Advances in the Mt.Changbai Volcano
    2015, 0(4).
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    2  Review on Volcano Resources
    LIU Ruo-xin LI Ni
    2000, 19(3):172-174.
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    WT5BZ] Volcano eruptions, which are the important landscape in the earth, bring the materials of mantle and crust to the surface of the earth. The eruptions have changed the environment, and also formed the important resources of minerals, geotherm and touring. The authors review the volcano resources from three main aspests. [WT5HZ]
    3  Lianhuashan Quaternary volcano in Heilongjiang Province
    GONG Jie-sheng ZHU Cheng LIU Jun-yi
    2012, 0(3):183-190.
    [Abstract](140) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    This paper discusses the volcanic landscape, eruption time, petrology, petrochemistry, structure and economic geology of Lianhuashan volcano in Heilongjiang Province. According to the isotopic dating of Shihlunites and stratigraphie sequence of the Quaternary strata of Lianhuashanvolcano, its eruption time is ascertained as Pleistocene. The obtained data of rare earth elements, trace elements, mantle-source inclu- sions and meagacrysts show that the petrology and petrochemistry of Lianhuashan volcano are similar to those of Wudalianchi volcano, with a slight difference between them. The authors considered that the Lianhuashan and Jianshan volcanoes are the southwestward extended part of Wudalianchi volcano. In a broad sense, Wudalianchi volcanic group includes Wudalianchi,Lianhuashan and Jianshan volcanoes, alto- gether consisting of 21 volcanic cones.
    4  Progress of the Study on Tianchi Volcano, Changbaishan,China
    Liu Ruoxin Wei Haiquan Tang Ji Song Sengrong Li Xiaodong Yang Qinfu Liu Tiesheng Wang Jijun
    1996, 17(4):2-11.
    [Abstract](120) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    长白山天池火山距今4105年以来至少发生过两次大规模喷发。其最近的一次大喷发发生于公元850~1040年间。估计了这次喷发的喷发物体积和C1,F,S等的释放量。数值模拟表明,该次大喷发对全球气候变化产生过重要影响,最近的地球物理探测结果显示,在该火山下面存在地壳和上地幔双层岩浆房。认为该火山现在仍是一座具潜在灾害性大喷发危险的现代活动火山。
    5  THE ANALYSIS OF WUDALIANCHI VOLCANOES HAZARD
    ZHAO Yi ZOU Wei-dong ZHOU Hao
    1999, 8(4):139-146.
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    A series of calculation and analyses are developed to estimate Wudalianchi volcanoes hazard. Based on the modern magma chamber conception and examples of active volcanoe abroad, theconsolidation curve and time are inverted by using the theoretical formula of Stefan object, thefragmentation mechanism of Wudalianchi volcano is discussed by the way of SFT (SequentialFragmentation Theory); the crust stability of Wudalianchi volcanoes area is discussed utilizing the structural ratio of crust and mantle; the activity of mantle material in Wudalianchi volcanoes area is discussed utilizing the satellite gravity abnormality of this area, the seepage effect and plug structure ofWudalianceh volcanoes eruption are simulated with the history records of their modern eruqtions. Atlast, volcano hazard is analyzed based on the above discussions in this paper.
    6  RESEARCHES ON MESOZOIC VOLCANIC STRUCTURE IN ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
    Shui Tao
    1981, 0(2):113.
    [Abstract](127) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with the problems pertaining to the methodology of regional volcanic structure,and put forward an approach to the methodology with the study of volcanic structural traces as starting point combined with regional geology,geophysical field and geochemical circumstances.Following such a way the author of this paper made researches on the general features and laws of the volcanic structure of continental facies,expounds the restrictive relationship between the regional horizontal stress field and point vertical stress field under the action of volcanic magma,and analysed the framework structure of volcanic basement.Besides,based upon some geological data of strontium isotope,this paper also disucsses the origin of volcanic substance and its relation with regional geotectonies.
    7  The Jianshan Volcano in Keshan County
    Chen Hongzhou Yang Senlin Gao Feng Tao Rupeng Pan Yulin
    2005, 21(1):118-122.
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    尖山火山位于黑龙江省中北部克山县境内,嫩江支流讷谟尔河的南岸,属于松嫩平原区。由于这一区域基岩出露少,不便于开展1:20万区域地质调查工作,故以往关于尖山火山的资料报道很少。《黑龙江省区域地质志》(黑龙江省地质矿产局,1993)中没有提到该火山,《中国火山》(刘嘉麒,1999)一书中虽提到克山县北兴镇的尖山火山的名称,但不见相关的报道。
    8  Active Level Analysis of the Tianchi Volcano in Changbaishan,China
    LIU Guo-ming YANG Jing-kui WANG Li-juan SUN Ji-cai
    2011, 30(4):393-399.
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Seismic monitoring has been conducted in the area of the Tianchi active volcano during every June to September since 1985.The volcanic seismic events were recorded about 40 times each year from 1985 to 1994.According to our observation data,it was found that the volcanic seismic events obviously increased since July,2002.The times of recorded seismic events increased to 1293 for the year 2002,the seismic events decreased in year 2004,but the released seismic energy remained increasing.This paper evaluated t...
    9  Facies variations in the pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) produced by the Millennium Eruption of the Changbaishan Tianchi volcano, NE China
    YI Jian WANG PuJun SHAN XuanLong CARNIEL Roberto WU ChenZhi WANG HanFei SUN Song GUO JianNan
    2020, 36(11):3346-3362.
    [Abstract](169) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Abstract:
    发生于公元946年的长白山天池火山千年大喷发(Millennium Eruption,ME)形成的火山碎屑堆积物体积高达100~172km<sup>3</sup>,并可分为大规模的ME-Ⅰ和小规模的ME-Ⅱ两个喷发阶段。通过对围绕长白山天池火山53个典型露头剖面进行火山地质测量(单元构成、垂向堆积序列和堆积特征),结合筛析法粒度分析、偏光显微镜成分分析,刻画了长白山千年大喷发火山碎屑流堆积物特征,探讨了相和亚相划分,并建立了火山碎屑流搬运和堆积模式。根据火山碎屑的堆积特征,将长白山千年大喷发火山碎屑流堆积分为峡谷充填火山碎屑流相(包括块状峡谷充填亚相和层状峡谷充填亚相)和火山碎屑流冲击扇相(包括扇头亚相和扇体亚相)等两相四亚相。峡谷充填火山碎屑流相主要发育在天池火山锥体周缘距离喷发中心8~23km左右范围内(坡度在15&#176;~60&#176;之间)的火山U型谷中;火山碎屑流冲积扇相主要发育在距离喷发中心23~45km左右范围内,地形相对平缓的熔岩台地处(坡度在5&#176;~15&#176;之间),火山碎屑流的搬运不受地形限制,一般形成较大纵横比扇状堆积。块状峡谷充填亚相和扇体亚相以块状混杂堆积为主要特征,而层状峡谷充填亚相和扇头亚相则以多火山碎屑流单元垂向叠加为主要特征。多单元叠加现象是由搬运过程中火山碎屑流单元发生分离增生作用形成。根据火山碎屑流的最大分布范围和厚度,如果再次发生与长白山千年大喷发类似规模的普林尼式喷发,至少距长白山天池火山喷发中心45km范围内具有巨大的火山碎屑流灾害风险。该研究有利于进一步深入认识长白山千年大喷发火山碎屑流堆积物的空间分布特征和相变规律,对火山碎屑喷发灾害的预防具有指导作用。
    10  The tectonic evolution and volcanic eruption in Tengchong volcanogeothermic region
    Kan Rongju Zhao Jinming Kan Dan
    1996, 17(4):28-33.
    [Abstract](130) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    It is discused that the process of plate associted evolution and the position of tectonic units in the era D-E2 in Tengchong region.The recent regional tectonic condition of Tengchong volcano-geothermic region Is explained and the relationship between the time of volcamoc erupted and era of plate collision is discused.
    11  Classification of Pyroclastic Rocks and Trend of Volcanic Sedimentology: A Review
    SUN Shan_ping LIU Yong_shun ZHONG Rong BAI Zhi_da LI Jia_zhen WEI Hai_quan ZHU Qin_wen
    2001, 20(3):313-317,328.
    [Abstract](131) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    Pyroclastic rocks are a kind of transitional and complex rocks between lavas and sedimentary rocks. Petrologists,both at home and abroad have spent a lot of time on the classification of pyroclastic rocks, and suc_cessively put forward the classification of pyroclasts, the petrographic and the petrogenetic classification of pyroclasic rocks. Widely accepted as they are, the classification of pyroclasts and the petrographic classification of pyroclastic rocks stipulated by the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks fail to consider the classification with Chinese characteristics, which was put forward in 1950s to 1960s and improved in 1980s to 1990s and has since been widely used in China. On the basis of the past schemes, new classifications of pyroclasts and the petrographic as well as the petrogenetic classification of pyroclastic rocks are proposed in this paper. Volcanic sedimentation is a frontier realm between volcanology and sedimentology. The past twenty years have witnessed great development in the study of volcanic sedimentation, both theoretical and methodological. The dynamics, experimentation and simulation of volcanic eruption and sedimentation have become the main trend in the future. Despite of this, the field geology and the character of pyroclastic rocks remain the basis of the petrogenesis of pyroclasic rocks.
    12  The Effect of Volcanic Eruption on the Paleoclimate in the Zhangjiakou Mesozoic Volcanic Basin, North China
    Guo Zhengfu Liu Jiaqi
    1998, 14(3):318-331.
    [Abstract](173) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5)
    Abstract:
    本文在详细地研究了张家口中生代火山盆地火山喷发物的基础上,利用岩石学及大气环境化学的基本原理,提出了一套系统估算火山喷出气体及气溶胶总量的程序与方法,并对张家口中生代火山喷出气体的种类、总量及气溶胶总量进行了估算;分析了火山硫化物气体转化为火山硫酸盐气溶胶的光化学过程及可能途径。在分别研究了本区火山喷发导致的“阳伞效应”与“温室效应”的基础上,探讨了该区火山喷发对地表温度的综合影响。初步结果表明:张家口中生代火山盆地火山喷发向当时大气圈中输送了约9.96×1010kg的硫酸盐气溶胶,它们能导致当时北半球范围内太阳总幅射率降低0.81%~3.60%,最终造成地表温度下降约0.81℃~3.6℃。
    13  VOLCANIC DISASTER AND ITS MONITORING AND PREVENTION
    Han Zhenhai Ren Jinzhang Chen Hongzhou
    1993, 2(4):85-97.
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
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    This paper considers that volcanic disaster is a great natural disaster,lists the serious loss of life and property.It also elaborates that the volcanic action is during a new active period recently,proposes the potential danger of volcanic disaster in our country. Many dormant volcano areas are becoming new economic developing areas and new towns of tour,convalescence,exploiting geothermal and source of con- struction material.However,with population rapidly increasing and economy development vigorously,we do not adopt an effective volcanic monitoring re- search and disaster-preventing measure. The authors suggest that goverment should put the research of volcanic monitoring into the disaster-preventing program,make planning,appropriate special founds and combine volcanic disaster preventing with land exploiting and economic construction.
    14  YANSHAN AND GAOSHAN VOLCANOES IN THE DAXINGAN MOUNTAIN RANGE-A NEW ERUPTION STYLE
    赵勇伟 樊祺诚
    2010, 32(1):28. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2010.01.003
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
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    Yanshan and Gaoshan, two Holocene volcanoes in the Halaha River and Chaoer River volcanic cluster, are different from volcanoes with Strombolian eruption. Their early-stage eruptions produced pyroclasts which formed scoria cone, tephra fall-out sheet and small-scale pyroclastic flow, while the late stage eruptions effused a great amount of lava. They have large cones with the elevation above 200 - 300 meters, and the cones are made up of cinder cone and spatter cone. Tephra fall-out sheet is around the cones. The effused lava flow from the two volcanoes underwent the lava type transition from pahoeoe lava to aa lava. According to the characteristics of volcanic products, the eruption style is presented as follows; explosive eruption with a sustained eruption column,Strombolian eruption,lava fountain eruption. The sustained eruption column characterizes the new style and makes it different from typical Strombolian eruption. The similar eruption as Yanshan and Caoshan happened in Longgang Quaternary volcanic cluster and Holocene volcanic cluster in Jingbohu. It is a new eruption style in the continental volcanism in China.
    15  Cleveland火山喷发
    2001, 17(6).
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    今年2月19日 ,Aleutian群岛中部的Cleveland火山出现了爆炸性喷发。飞行员报告说火山灰云弥漫至35000英尺的高空。灰羽以大约1.85km/h的速度向Aku tan的丹麦港移动 ,向北延伸了至少75英里。卫星图像显示灰云的主要部分大都漂移至55°N、171°W之间的地区。火山以东45英里处Nikolski地区的居民看到火山灰“瀑布”持续了4h。Cleveland火山的上一次喷发出现在1994年。自1983年以来已经喷发了11次。2月份的喷发在火山的北、东翼堆积起了高大的灰山 ,而在火山…
    16  The Seafloor Volcanic Chain
    朱佛宏
    2003, 19(5):28-28.
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    20 0 1年 4月 2 4日设在土阿木土群岛 (法国在太平洋南部的领土 )朗伊罗阿环礁上的“波普里奥里奥”地震测站测到了海底的“爆炸”。由塔希提岛 (法属波里尼西亚 )波马达依地球物理实验室的工作人员完成的地震波分析表明 ,它们的源头位于马里亚纳群岛范围内 ,其地理坐标约为 2 0 3°W和 1 45°E(± 1 5km)。在这个地区的海底分布着奥依海脊 ,其顶部位于海平面以下 1 40m。正是由于奥依海脊的火山活动才造成 1 979年捕渔船的船员注意到该区出现了不一般的海浪以及海水的变色 ,并伴有强烈的硫磺味。从奥依海脊向西分布着帕哈罗斯火山岛(其另…
    17  Review on Monitoring and Exploring the Active Volcanoes in China
    SUI Jian-li FAN Qi-cheng ZHAO Yong-wei LI Ni SUN Qian
    2011, 30(4):361-364.
    [Abstract](145) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Framework of the two major tectonic plates,collision and upwelling of Qingzang Plateau and subduction of Pacific Plate under eastern China control the volcanic activities in China.From the 1990's,programs started to monitor and to explore the three most dangerous active volcanoes in China.The active volcanoes in China attract more and more programs and researches.During the first decade of 21th century,we have done many explorations on several Quaternary active volcanoes in China.This paper reviews the main...
    18  FEATURES OF GRAVITY FIELD OF TENGCHONG VOLCANO
    Luo Zengxiong Lei Qun
    1998, 21(4):374-378.
    [Abstract](129) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Features of gravity field of Tengchong volcano have been studied primarily based on the relative observation performed in the first period of survery. The results indicate that gravity ranks in alternate way with high and low values from north to south. An area with relative low values forms around the three craters in Heikongshan, Dayingshan and Ma'anshan. Meanwhile, there exist areas with corresponding high values.
    19  Wudalianchi volcano and cold spring
    Lu Zongwen Sun Shenjie
    1996, 17(6):75-79.
    [Abstract](154) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Based on analyzing the relationship between the volcano activity and warm spring, the cold spring phenomenon in Wudalianchi area is discussed in this paper.The results indicate that the spring temperature is not the unique index to discribe the volcano activities. The characteristics of the volacnic gases, microseismic activities and the geothermic gradient etc, clearly show that Wudalianchi volcanoes are still active.
    20  LAHAR DEPOSITS OF 1000 a B.P. ERUPTION AT CHANGBAISHAN VOLCANO AND THEIR HAZARDS
    LIU Xiang SUI Wei-guo WANG Xi-kui
    2000, 30(1):14-17.
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    <font size="3"></font><span class="zye"><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">The lahar deposits of the 1 000 a B.P. eruption of Changbaishan volcano are distributed along mid-and up part of Songhua river. They are transported for more than 360 km, passing by Jilin city. The lahar deposits accumulated along Erdobaihe valley from 22 km north of volcano down to 83 km north of volcano belong to the debris flow deposits of lahar with maximum width over 5 km and maximum depth over 30 m. Around Liangjiang along Songhua river, 83 km from volcano, the lahar transformed from debris flow to hyperconcentrated streamflow. The hyperconcentrated streamflow deposits with maximum thickness of 11.5 m accumulated along the left bank of Songhua river at Liangjiang. The hyperconcentrated streamflow deposits are composed of rounded pumice, volcanic sand and sedimentary sand with a lot of piece of charcoal.
    21  Analysis of magma chamber at the Tianchi volcano area in Changbai mountain
    QIU Gen-Gen PEI Fa-Gen FANG Hui DU Bing-Rui ZHANG Xiao-Bo ZHANG Peng-Hui YUAN Yong-Zhen HE Mei-Xing BAI Da-Wei
    2014, 57(10):3466-3477. DOI: 10.6038/cjg20141032
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](20)
    Abstract:
    According to South Korean media's comments that the Tianchi volcano in Changbai Mountain is likely to erupt in coming 2 years, we carried out an MT sounding observation profile about 103 km long at Tianchi volcano area for detecting the deep electrical structures. Since the electromagnetic interference from unknown sources is very strong in the research area, we used a number of advanced data processing techniques including remote reference, Robust processing, Rhoplus analysis, impedance tensor decomposition, and a mutual approximate calculation method between apparent resistivity and phase, finally obtained high-quality and more reliable electromagnetic data in the strong interference areas. Then we analysed the two dimensional structural trend and characteristics of induction vector at Tianchi volcano area in Changbai Mountain, using NLCG inversion technique to interpret the inversion data, then compared the inversion results with previous exploration results. The results show that there is an obvious magma channel at the bottom of Tianchi volcano, the magma channel is closed in depth about 5~8 km. At the bottom of the crater, near the north direction about 7 km deep exists an obvious low resistance body, the resistivity is less than 10Ωm, connected with the magma channel. It is inferred that it may be the developing magma chamber in shallow surface. The abnormal region is between stations C07-C09 near the entrance gate of Changbai mountain and between C04-C05 station, there are two obvious nearly vertical low resistivity zones existing in the depth of about 7~17 km, connecting with below low resistance body directly, it is inferred that the low resistivity zone contains the magma. As the depth increases, the crust low resistivity anomaly bodies are widely developed in the depth of 13km to 30km, north to the position of 20 km south from Tianchi volcano, which may be the active magma chamber. Comparing the inversion results with the previous exploration results, the electrical characteristics are overall similar, but locally different.
    22  REVIEW OF STUDIES ON TENGCHONG VOLCANOES
    Huangfu Gang
    1997, 20(4):431-437.
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    A series of researches and investigations on Tengchong volcanoes have been conducted in the past three decades. Valuable results in aspects of geology, geochemistry, geothermics and others were obtained by geologists and seismologists. A comprehensive introduction to the results mentioned above and partial typical viewpoints on Tengchong volcanoes will be given in this paper, which may be conducive to the ongoing program Study on the Measuring, Forecasting and Counter measuring of the Volcanic Activity in Tengchong, China.
    23  Advances in volcano-climatology
    Li Xiaodong Wang Shaowu Liu Ruoxin
    1996, 17(4):74-80.
    [Abstract](135) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    In this paper, advances In volcano-climatology are reviewed systematically from the following aspects:data diagnostic analysis and numerical simulation.Some important questions in volcano-climate study have been discussed.
    24  Gases disaster from volcano eruption
    LI Ni
    2000, 9(3):127-132.
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Volcano eruption is a magnificent natural landscape in earth. There are many kinds of volcano eruption, which not only change the landforms and bring about some mineral re- sources, but even more bring disasters to nature sametimes, when volcano erupts, a huge sum of gases are emitted to the air, which bring the tremendous disaster to global climate and enviroment.
    25  Mechanism of the Volcanic Unrest of the Changbaishan Tianchi Volcano from 2002 to 2005
    Liu Dongyang Fan Yuhong Zhang Yu Li Ting Zhong Guangpei Liu Guoming Zou Kaicheng Liu Bingbing
    2020, 36(3):561-570.
    [Abstract](156) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract:
    The observation of earthquake,deformation and volcanic gas geochemistry show that Changbaishan volcano experienced an unrest from 2002 to 2005. Before and after the volcanic unrest,station CBS recorded continuous and stable broadband seismic data. According to the previous observation results,the main type of volcanic earthquake during the Changbaishan volcanic unrest is volcanic tectonic earthquake,accompanied by a small number of harmonic earthquakes. In this paper,based on the matched-filter technique,the three component seismic data before and after the volcanic unrest from 1999 to 2007 from Changbaishan Volcano Observatory were scanned by template,and 3763 clear volcanic seismic events were obtained,including 125 harmonic spectra(HS)events,3618 volcanic tectonic(VT)events,and 20 long-period(LP)events. The volcanic earthquake events during the volcanic unrest can be divided into three types:volcanic tectonic events,long-period events and harmonic spectra events. A model of "energy transfer between deep earthquakes and volcanoes" is proposed for Changbaishan volcanic unrest mechanism from 2002 to 2005 as follows. First,Wang Qing deep-focus earthquake energy release and transfer,causing the lithospheric stress state fluctuation in Changbaishan volcanic area. Then,after the mantle magma chamber is disturbed by stress,the magma channel opens and a small amount of magma intrudes into the crust magma chamber. Finally,mixed degassing of magma leads to the pressure rise of magma chamber in the crust,which leads to the micro fracture of the top rock,resulting in volcanic tectonic earthquake. When gas and fluid fill these fissures,LP and HS type volcanic earthquake events occur.
    26  FAULT STRUCTURE OF TENGCHONG VOLCANO
    Jiang Chaosong Zhou Ruiqi Yao Xiaozhi
    1998, 21(4):330-336.
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    In this paper, features of fault structures, fault activity and its relation with volcano have been evaluated, and geological structural outline, fault activity and its relation with regional tectonics, and evolution history have been discussed. From studies, the fault structure and volcano activity in Tengchong area are controlled by crustal movement and block gathering and dispersing, having inheritance and extensibility.
    27  TECTONIC STRESS FIELD IN WUDALIANCHI VOLCANIC REGION
    Zhang Fengming Xu Xiaoyan
    1998, 7(1):66-71.
    [Abstract](125) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    According to the observation data obtained by the seismic network in Wudalianchi volcanic region,the characters of seismic spatial distribution and focal mechanisms in the volcanic region are studied,the relative factors between seismicity and volcanic activity under the tectonic stress environment in Wudalianchi volcanic region are discussed also.
    28  Progress in monitoring the Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan.
    LIU GuoMing YU HongChi TAN YuWen
    2006, 22(6):1491-1493.
    [Abstract](160) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](13)
    Abstract:
    The Tianchi Volcano, which is located at the border of NE China and North Krea, is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in China. In this paper, we introduced the development in establishment of the Tianchi monitoring station, and reported the progress in recent years, including monitoring data on seismology, on terrain deformation and on geochemistry.
    29  Volcanism and Geothermals in Tenchong County, Yunnan Province, China
    Liao Zhijie
    1999, 45(7):934-939.
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    Abstract:
    腾冲县境面积约5700 km2,晚新生代喷出的火山岩约50 km3,占 据面积约1100 km2。以早更新世喷出的中—酸性熔岩规模最大,全新世火山活动已呈强弩之末。但是,晚新生代的地热活动无疑构成腾冲县境强烈地热活动的地质背景。县境共有58个水热活动区,温度高于45℃的热泉区占24个,其中还有3个沸泉群。热海地热田排放氯\|重碳酸\|钠型水,热储温度可望达到270℃,其岩浆热源埋藏深度约7 km,是最有开发前景的一个高温地热田
    30  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN VOLCANIC HAZARDS MITIGATION
    Xu Guangyu Huangfu Gang
    1998, 21(4):397-405.
    [Abstract](131) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    This paper overviews the recent developments in volcanic hazards mitigation abroad, including principal types of volcanic hazards, identification of high-risk volcanoes, identification, assessment and zoning of hazards, volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, engineering oriented countermeasures and volcanic emergency management. And also, description and comparison of the major disasters are made.
    31  METALLOGENESIS OF THE LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS CONTROLLED BY THE MESOZOIC VOLCANIC-SUBVOLCANIC ROCKS IN DAXINGANLING REGION
    JIA Bin LIU Gui-xiang ZHANG Chun-hui YANG Hong-zhi ZHANG Chun-peng
    2012, 21(1):114-121.
    [Abstract](169) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Abstract:
    Due to the subduction of the Pacific plate in Mesozoic Era, severe volcanic-subvolcanic activities took place in the Daxingauling region. On the tectonic background of Mesozoic volcanic fault depression, amounts of Pb-Zn polymetal mineralization occur on the margin of the fault depression and the in the connecting belt between depression and uplift. The deposits are controlled by a series of volcanic-subvolcanic hypabyssal intrusive. The mineralization is formed nearly the same as or slightly later than the volcanic-subvolcanic activities. Six potential Pb-Zn metallogenic belts are recognized in the Daxinganling region, i.e. 1 ) Derbugan Pb-Zn(-Au-Ag) metallogenic belt; 2) Xiertala-Arshan Pb-Zn polymetal metallogenic belt; 3) Ulanhot-Lindong Pb-Zn polymetal metallogenic belt; 4) Linxi-Huanghetu Pb-Zn polymetal metallogenic belt; 5) Xilinhot-Chaobuleng Pb-Zn polymetal metallogenic belt; and 6) Xiaodonggou-Ongniud Pb-Zn polymetal metallogenic belt. The deposits can be assigned into three metallogenic types.
    32  Volcanic Stratigraphic Sequence and Volcanism Revealed by CZK07 Drill Core at Tianchi Volcano, Changbai Mountain
    CUI Tianri QIAN Cheng JIANG Bin TANG Zhen ZHANG Chao LU Lu WU Tong CHEN Huijun ZHANG Yujin YANG Liu
    2017, 91(11):2409-2422.
    [Abstract](129) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Abstract:
    长白山天池火山是地球上最大的活火山之一,其形成演化过程复杂。本文在对天池周边工程钻岩芯资料系统整理的基础上,以本次在北坡“U”形谷中开展的CZK07钻岩芯为研究对象,揭示天池火山白头山期火山锥体之下的火山喷发物物质组成和火山地层层序变化特征,分析火山活动过程中伴生火山作用的表现形式及断裂构造的活动特征。CZK07钻岩芯较全面地记录了天池火山早期活动、早期造盾、晚期造盾和造盾之后前造锥阶段火山活动的火山地层层序。其中天池火山早期活动记录由蚀变较强的流纹岩组成;早期造盾由军舰山组橄榄玄武岩夹辉石玄武岩组成,形成于上新世;晚期造盾由漫江组粗面质(橄榄)玄武岩夹粗面岩组成,形成于早更新世早期,且至少存在3期火山活动;造盾之后前造锥阶段的火山喷发物由小白山组粗面质熔岩及碎屑岩组成,形成于早更新世晚期。伴生的火山作用记录表现为造盾晚期的玄武质次火山活动,造锥阶段的粗面质次火山活动及伴随发生的蚀变和隐爆现象,及全新世大爆发阶段的隐爆角砾、热液蚀变和次火山活动等现象。天池火山地区晚新生代以来高角度张剪性断层的活动强烈,推测与“U”形谷的形成密切相关。
    33  Study on geological origin and characteristics of Talakit volcanogene/secondary volcanogene hydrothermal gold deposit of Indonesia
    Liu Keyi Jin Xianghao
    1996, 0(7).
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Through study on geological structure and characteristics of breccia and corroded minerals of Talakit gold deposit of Indonesia, the authors of this paper believe that this gold deposit belongs to magma hydrothermal gold ore deposit related to volcano/secondry volcano.
    34  VOLCANIC COASTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES: ISLAND VOLCANIC COASTS AS THE EXAMPLES
    王颖 张永战
    1997, 17(4):333-343.
    [Abstract](143) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6)
    Abstract:
    Volcanic coast includes the coasts developed along the volcanic cone, volcanic crater or volcanic fissure eruption zone. It is different from the coast only formed by volcanic rocks. The land-ocean interactions in this special environment are characterized by the joint processes of the surfacial geologic processes and tectonic activities of the upper mantle. As a result, it not only affects on the local coast evolution, but also leads to a series effects on the regional environment. There are more than 2000 extinct with and about 500 active or dormant volcanoes scattered over the earth′s surface. These volcanoes are distributed in the three zonations: i. e. plates convergent boundaries, the mid-ocean ridges and the interior of the plates. Among them, more than 75 percent of the active and recently extinct volcanoes, i. e. 370 volcanoes, are located along the Pacific rim, which extents from the western side of the South and North America, Alaska Peninsula, Aleutian Islands, Pov Kamcatka, Japanese Islands, Taiwan Island, Philippines Islands to New Zealand. This volcanic belt is known as the fire ring of the Pacific, most of the volcanic coasts are developed accomplished with the fire ring. Three island volcanic coasts surveyed by the authors are selected as the cases studying for the volcanic coastal processes and environmental responses. These three volcanic coasts are: Mujishen and Longmen volcanic coasts of Hainan Island in China, discussed more detail, volcanic coasts of Hawaiian Islands of U. S. A., located in the interior of the Pacific Plates for comparing, and volcanic coasts of Sakura Volcano in Kagoshima of Japan, set at convergent plat boundaries(the circum-Pacific belt), the later two are still in the frequent eruption nowadays. Study on the environmental affection of the volcanic coast will improve the efforts on the environment protection. Volcanic coasts of Hainan Island have developed along a series of small craters with predominant marine erosional features. The volcanic eruption during Holocene has elevated the coastal bays to be terraces, blocked the river mouths, forced river channels migration and elevated the abundant river mouths to be deep erode-meandered bays, and volcanic rocky coast offered the basements for coral reef development. The volcanic activities have changed coastal landforms, slops, dynamic conditions, sedimentary characteristics and the trends of coastal evolution. The development of volcanic coast has shown a multi-affection of both inner and outer dynamic processes of tectonic, marine hydro-dynamics and biological factors. Comparatively, Hawaii volcanic coast is characterized by a volcanic-island chain formed by the lateral movement of the oceanic plate moving over a stationary hot spot. The ages of the islands increase toward the left, and new islands will continue to form over the hot spot. Recently, lava flows of Kauea eruption continue the island-building processes, produce a barren volcanic land scape of creator bay, lagoon etc., that served as a foundation for coral reefs and lives: plants, animals and humans. Also, the eruption has changed the local atmospheric environment. Plenty precipitation of the tropic islands develops fertilized soil, which produces favorable condition for luxury forests and bio-diversity. The Pacific volcanic islands are the precious location of tropic biological resources and ecological environment. Volcanic debris daily erupted by active volcano of Sakura Island have buried the island, highways, houses, temples, and have caused muddy flow disasters often, especially during thunder storm periods, as a result, they have changed the dynamic processes. Besides the effects on the coast geomorphology, volcanic activities change the dynamic processes of coastal zone, thus, they change the trend of coastal evolution. Furthermore, the environment responses to the volcanic activities have shown the long term climatical and ecological changes to the local or regional coastal area. What′s more important is that the volcanic activities might lead to a series of severe disasters. It should be paid special attention to study and predicate the volcanic hazards, to find the way for decreasing and preventing these kinds of natural disasters in the furore, and to maintain the sustainable development of the volcanic coasts.
    35  VOLCANO AT TIANCHI LAKE,CHANGBAISHAN MT.——A MODERN VOLCANO WITH POTENTIAL DANGER OF ERUPTION
    LIU RUO-XIN
    1992, 35(5):661-665.
    [Abstract](123) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](7)
    Abstract:
    Through the study on the history, scale and material type of eruption of the volcano at Tianchi Lake, Changbaishan Mt., it has been indicated that this volcano may be a major active modern volcano with potential danger of eruption. It is suggested that the monitoring of aacti-vity and systematic study of this volcano shoul be strengthened.
    36  Eruption of the A''''wu Volcano
    朱佛宏
    2006, 22(9):36-36.
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    据历史资料,阿武火山座落在印度尼西亚苏拉威西岛北端附近与其紧接的桑吉岛上。它分别在1711、1812、1856、1892和1966年喷发过。最近37年来,它被认为是一座熄灭火山。这段时间内其顶部(火山高度为海平面以上1 320 m)形成了长1 km的含浅绿色水的火山口湖,其水体容积曾经达3 500
    37  History and evolution of Changbaishan volcano
    FAN Qi-cheng
    2008, 0(3):196-203.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Changbaishan Volcano is located on the boundary of China and North Korea,its continuous eruptions occurred from Pliocene to modem time. As one of the largest Quaternary volcanic province in China, Changbaishan Volcano can be divided into four parts, including Tianchi Volcanic Field (TVF), Wangtian'e Volcanic Field (WVF), Longang Volcanic Field (LVF) and Tumen River Volcanic Field (TRVF). The primary magma of Changbaishan Volcano is potassic trachybasalt, so Changbaishan volanic region can be called as "potassic trachybasalt province", and the magma evolution of this volcano is dominated by fractional crystallization and magma mixing. The lower crustderived magma chamber and the mantle-derived magma chamber of Tianchi Volcano showed a feature of double acting volcanic eruptions,on the one hand the potassic trachybasaltic magma derived from the mantle erupted out directly to the surface, on the other hand the potassic trachybasaltic magma was continuously feeded to the lower crust-derived magma chamber where fractional crystallization and assimilation of magmas were occurred, causing to form and intensively erupt bemodel volcanic rocks 1000 years ago. The subduction of the western Pacific plate and subsequent back-arc extension of Northeast Asia continent were the dynamic mechanism of the volcanic activities of Changbaishan Volcano.
    38  The Study on Fallout Tephra Deposits in the Laoheishan Volcano
    Liu Xiang
    1997, 15(1):71-76.
    [Abstract](131) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    由中心式喷发形成的老黑山火山碎悄降落堆积物,主要是玄武质火山渣、火山弹、火山饼和少量岩屑。在火山爆发自身能量和北北西风的影响下,形成高耸的火山渣锥和向南南东展布的低缓的火山碎屑席地貌景观。区域上系统测量了火山碎屑度中火山碎屑的厚度、最大平均粒径,分选第数和中值粒径,均呈现规律性变化;剖面层序则反映老黑山火山经过两个大喷发阶段,多次脉动式喷发。
    39  THE EVOLUTION AND FORMATION CONDITIONS OF VOLCANIC-SUBVOLCANIC COMPLEXES IN QIBAOSHAN,WULIAN CoUNTY,SHANDONG PROVINCE
    Qiu Jiansheng Wang Dezi Ren Qijiang Zhou Jincheng
    1993, 13(4):1-10.
    [Abstract](169) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    There are two stages of volcanic-subvolcanic complexes develope in the Qibaoshan caldera. On the basis of petrologic and geochemical investigation this paper demonstrates that there is a close genesis relationship between volcanic rocks and subvolcanic rocks, and points out that the two stages of volcanic-subvolcanic complexes belong to two kinds of rock series and are differentiation products of two magma chambers respectively. In this paper,the diagenetic physicochemical conditions have been quantitatively reckoned.
    40  东北地区火山灾害及构造背景
    刘祥 隋维国
    1999, 6(4):396-396.
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    东北地区是中国新生代火山活动最强烈的地区,新生代火山500多座,火山熔岩和火山喷发碎屑堆积物分布面积5万余km2。火山活动最强烈的时期始自渐新世,直至现代,分中新世、上新世、更新世三个高潮期。东北也是中国活火山最多、活火山群最集中的地区。它们是:①长白山火山,历史记载长白山火山有5次喷发,分别发生在公元1413,1597,1668,1702,1903年。长白山火山1000年前的一次大爆发,火山灰向东一直到达日本,超过1000km,因此是世界历史时期最大的火山喷发之一。这次大爆发的火山泥流沿松花江…
    41  A Review of Volcano Monitoring Program in China
    XU Jian-dong
    2011, 30(4):390-392.
    [Abstract](132) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    The National Volcano Monitoring Network(NVMN),which was established in 2006 and is made up by four provincial volcano centers,is the headcounter of the active volcano monitoring and research of China.The National Volcano Monitoring Network Center is currently monitoring six active volcanoes in China,Changbaishan Tianchi volcano and Longgang volcano in the Jilin province,Wudalianchi volcano and Jingbohu volcano in the Heilongjiang province,Tengchong volcano in the Yunnan province,and Qiongbei volcano in the ...
    42  Study Progress of the Relationship between Volcanoes and Environment
    LI Ni LIU Ruo-xin WEI Hai-quan
    2000, 19(3):175-178.
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    WT5BZ]The relationship between volcanoes and environment, which is one of the important aspects in volcanologic study, has attracted universal attention in recent years. The authors have reviewed the research progress in relationship beween volcanoes and environment made by domestic and oversea scientists. [WT5HZ]
    43  GEOLOGICAL STUDIES ON KELUO VOLCANIC CLUSTER, HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE
    ZHANG Liu-yi LI Ni FAN Qi-cheng ZHAO Yong-wei CAO Yuan-yuan PAN Xiao-dong
    2012, 34(1):145-159. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2012.01.014
    [Abstract](148) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract:
    Keluo volcanic cluster, which covers an area of ca. 350km2, is located between the Greater Khingan Mountains and the Songnen Plain, Heilongjiang Province, and in the north of the famous Wudalianchi volcanic cluster. Twenty-three Cenozoic volcanoes that primarily consist of alkaline basalts are distributed along the Keluo River. The activities and distribution of this volcanic cluster are largely controlled by the regional basement faults, and consistent with the special tectonic setting of NE-trending fault basin. The Strombolian-type central eruption is the predominant eruptive type in this area. Volcanic activities in this area can be divided into three periods, namely, Pliocene period, Pleistocene period and Holocene period. During the Pliocene, a series of central-overflow-type volcanoes, which situated on the edge of the basin, were formed along the NE-trending faults. However, except for some shield lava platforms, most of the original volcanic geomorphic features have been destroyed by weathering. The volcanic activities of early Pleistocene were relatively quiet. But the eruption activities of the Mid- and Late-Pleistocene were also controlled by the NE-trending basement faults, and the eruptive center, type and intensity were all changed as well. These volcanoes are mainly composed of alkali-basaltic scoria cones and lavas. The Holocene volcanoes, as represented by Nanshan, have similar eruptive type and composition to the former ones, but their volcanic structures are well preserved. Some micro-morphological characteristics can be easily recognized at their outcrops. On the whole, the lava covered the former sedimentary strata and changed the river flows attributed to the volcanic activities of Keluo volcanic cluster, as a result, the original geomorphy in the basin was totally altered.
    44  Preliminary Study on Mitigation Countermeasure of Volcanic Hazards of Tianchi Volcano,Changbai Mountains
    Yang Qingfu ) Liu Ruoxin ) Wei Haiquan ) Zhang Xingke )
    2003, 26(2):183-190.
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    The volcanologists at home and abroad considered that Tianchi volcano is an active one with a potential eruption risk and thus working out the mitigation countermeasure of the volcano hazards should be placed on the agenda.The mitigation countermeasure in different stages of volcanic activity has been worked out in the light of exist study of the Tianchi volcano and the features of the volcanic hazards.It is necessary to strengthen monitoring and study of the volcano and propagation of volcanic knowledge,to adopt essential engineering protection,to make volcanic risk evaluation and work out emergency programme of volcanic eruption in medium-long term stage,to ask help from international volcanic mobile monitoring network in short-term stage,to leave in orderly way in impending eruption stage,to deal with an emergency and to provide disaster relief during eruption and post eruption and to judge eruption tendency and to rebuild homeland rationally during post eruption.
    45  METAMORPHOSED VOLCANIC EDIFICE OF CHENJIABA AREA,SOUTHWESTERN SHANXI PROVINCE,CHINA
    Fu Gongqin Shi Lin Li Shilin
    1996, 16(1):1-16.
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Located in Kang-Lue-Mian primitive rift aaalong the NW margin of Archaean Yangtze platform .the metamorphosed volcanic edififce of Chenjiaba area is intermediate-acidic volcanic edifice formed in shallow submarine water during the late stage of contine ntal distension in proterzoic Riftian. It consists of clustered comagmatic source volcanic apparatuses of fissutr type,volcanic collapse structure and glug of passive emplacement,There are five eruptive depositional and oruptive filling stages,The primary rocks of the volcanic edifice belong to Mg-rich andesite-decite-rhyolite association of continental crust source.Only in keratophyric dust-tuff tayers near volcanic cones of comparatively thick submarine depression factes,there exist intercalates of borititic lenses of polymatallic sulphidc deposits ,containing An and Ag.i. e. .An and Ag-bearing exhalative-sedimentary deposits,And only in brinepools of submarine pit-crater collapse.there exist volcnogenic massive sulphide deposits(VMS).
    46  GRAIN-SIZE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILLENNIUM PYROCLASTIC FLOW DEPOSITS OF TIANCHI VOLCANO AND THEIR GEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
    YANG Qing-fu SHI Lan-bin ZHANG Yu CHEN Bo CHEN Xiao-de
    2007, 29(3):480-491. DOI: CNKI:SUN:DZDZ.0.2007-03-006
    [Abstract](144) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8)
    Abstract:
    Pyroclastic flow deposits have become a research topic of great interest in volcanology, because they may bring the humanity devastating hazards. This paper demonstrates the results of grain-size sieve analyses of the millennium pyroclastic flow deposits from Tianchi volcano. The result shows that the pyroclastic flow deposits are poorly sorted and the ash cloud surge deposits accompanied with pyroclastic flow are well sorted. The average greatest grain-sizes of lithic fragments and pumice fragments in pyroclastic flow deposits decrease with increasing distance from the crater, indicating that gravity sorting and mechanical wearing did occur during the transportation of the pyroclastic flow. In addition, fluidization also occurred during the transportation of pyroclastic flow. The rate of fluidization decreases with increasing distance from the crater, indicating the occurrence of degassing during the transportation process of the pyroclastic flow. This process might cause the increase of viscosity and yield strength of the pyroclastic flow, resulting in the deposition of the flow. The rate of fluidization, therefore, is an important factor controlling the transportation distance. The confluence of multi-channel pyroclastic flows at distal part may increase the rate of fluidization of the pyroclastic flow, as a resuit, the transportation distance becomes longer and the hazard area becomes greater.
    47  VOLCANIC HAZARDS AND MONITORING
    Liu Jiaqi Guo Zhengfu Liu Qiang
    1999, 19(5):414-422.
    [Abstract](155) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](11)
    Abstract:
    Volcanoes are common in the earth. At present, there are more than 1 500 activevolcanoes in the world. There are about 50 eruptions every year. Volcanic eruptions can emit a lot of lava, tephra, and gases. It presents not only a lot of wealthy butalso a lot of hazards to human. Many environmental problems, including greenhouseeffect, ozone hole, acid rain and E1 Nino, are relative to volcanic eruption. Volcanichazards are listed as main natural hazards by Union of Nations. More and moreattention is played on volcanic hazard monitoring and prevention. It is very necessaryto know the types and features of volcanic hazards and to look for effective ways tomonitor.Styles, features, scales and places of volcanic eruption determine the types ofvolcanic hazards. There are two main types of volcanic hazards . One is caused bydynamics of eruption, including landslide, mudflow, volcanic earthquake, Tsunamis.The other is caused by products of volcanic eruption, which include volcanicPyroclastic flow, lave flow, volcanic gases and aerosols, volcanic ash / tephra anderuption cloud. They not only destroy trees, animals, building, roads, bridges, butalso endanger human's life. Furthermore, some volcanic eruptions can affect globalclimate.Because of abrupt happens and serious damages, we must adopt prompt andeffective steps to monitor and defense volcanic hazards. The most important step is toknow well regulation or cycle of volcanic activity. In order to grasp the pulses ofvolcanic activity, it is very necessary to monitor carefully. The work of volcanicmonitoring is consisting of two aspects. The first is basic geology survey, whichinclude geological setting of volcano, the feature of petrology, geochemistry andgeophysics, crust deformation measurement, history and cycle of volcanic eruption.The other is to monitor index of volcanic activity, such as earthquake anomaly,geochemistry anomaly, geothermal anomaly.Despite scare recent volcanic eruption in China, there were many volcanicactivities in China according to distribution and geological, geochemistry features ofvolcanoes. Volcanoes in China are distributed on circle-Pacific and Qinghai-XizangPlateau, where has strong new tectonic activities. The possibility and dangers ofre-eruption still exists. According to acquired data, the potential dangerous volcanoesin China are mainly distributed in Changbai Mountain, Wudalianchi, Taiwan, Leiqiong,Tengchong and Ashikule. In particular, Changbai Mountain volcano is potential themost dangerous.
    48  Volcanic Eruptions and Their Environmental Effect
    Li Tiefeng Pan Mao
    1999, 45(7):63-71.
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](9)
    Abstract:
    The volcanic activity is a way with which the internal energy and heat of the Earth release. The effect of volcanic eruption on the environment on which huma n being exist are disaster effect and resources effect. The volcanic eruption is one of the natural hazards. Volcanic eruption not only endangers human being bu t also induce some secondary or long term hazards. Lava flows, pyroclastic fl ows , lahars and volcanic tsunamis are the major hazards that threaten the life and property of the people. The volcanic activity also provides a wealth of minerals ,geothermal energy and beautiful landscape.
    49  TEM STUDY OF WEATHERED LAYERS ON THE SURFACE OF VOLCAMC GLASS
    ZHANG Bing-liang HONG Han-jing UU Hui PAN Xiao-dong
    2008, 28(3).
    [Abstract](137) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    TEM EDX analyses revealed the surface characteristics and thickness of the weathered layers on the volcanic glass in pumice.The results showed that the average thickness of the weathered layers on the volcanic glass from volvanic eruption(1000 B.P.) is 1.0 mm..For the eruption(4000 B.P.) the average thickness of the weathered layers on the volcanic glass is 3.7mm,These features indicate that the thickness of the weathered layers on the volcanic glass from the Tianchi volcano is related with the ages of volcanic eruption.Therefore,they can be used as indicators for the determination of a sequence of volcanic eruptions.The EDX analyses also showed that the weathered layers on the volcanic glass contain increased Al and reduced Si in chemical composition with respect to the volcanic glass itself.It is inferred that such a change should have occurred in a low-temperature setting and a nearly neutral to weakly acidic solution.Hence,it is possible to identify the dates and sequences of volcanic eruptions as well as their environments based on a systematic study of micro characteristics of eruptive materials in the Tianchi caldera.