Salt Lake sedimentation, potassium lithium mineralization and exploration and mining technology

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  • 1  Study on the material source, potassium formation and its controlling factors in salt lakes on both sides of the Altun Mountain
    Li Jiansen Shan Fashou Zhang Xiying
    2021, 95(7):2205-2213.
    [Abstract](347) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    塔里木盆地东部的罗布泊盐湖和柴达木盆地西部的盐湖分别位于阿尔金山两侧,均产出有大量富钾卤水,在油气藏开采中还伴随产出富钾油田水。为探讨阿尔金山两侧盐类资源富集机制及其控制因素,综合分析了罗布泊盐湖、柴达木盆地西部盐湖以及油田水的水化学和氢氧同位素地球化学特征,发现:富钾卤水的形成除依靠地表汇入水体的蒸发浓缩作用外,罗布泊晶间水、柴达木晶间水和油田水氢氧同位素均可演化至 δ D=-30‰, δ 18 O=75‰左右,可能是深部流体上涌补给的结果。同时,根据 87 Sr/ 86 Sr值并结合 δ 11 B、 3 He/ 4 He同位素特征确认了盐湖成矿与深部流体有关,且指示罗布泊盐湖更具深源特征。深部流体对于两侧盆地成盐富钾有关键性作用,罗布泊盐湖可能接受深部流体补给,柴达木盆地西部富钾盐湖卤水多数可接受油田水的补给,而少部分可能接受深部流体补给。
    2  Changes in boron isotopes during the thermal process of sedimentary borate
    Peng Zhangkuang Ma Yunqi Peng Qiming
    2021, 95(7):2160-2168.
    [Abstract](334) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    建立温度与硼同位素变化的关系是研究沉积硼酸盐成岩- 变质作用中硼同位素地球化学行为的关键,这有助于准确认识硼酸盐δ 11 B值所代表的地质意义。本文以自然产出的三方硼砂和钠硼解石为材料,结合热分解特征研究了不同热作用过程中硼同位素变化。200℃下硼酸盐经历结晶水的脱水反应,此过程中三方硼砂和钠硼解石δ 11 B值分别由6.48±0.14‰降低到5.41±0.27‰和由-13.27±0.11‰降低到-15.93±0.23‰。1‰~3‰的硼同位素变化与自然界观察到的由脱水作用形成的次生硼酸盐比原生硼酸盐δ 11 B值低2‰~4‰的现象一致。200~300℃间经历羟基的脱水过程,伴随着1‰~2‰的硼同位素降低,此过程中三方硼砂和钠硼解石 δ 11 B 值分别由5.41±0.27‰降低到3.73±0.26‰和由-15.93±0.23‰降低到-17.11±0.11‰。300~670℃间硼酸盐经历物相转化过程,三方硼砂和钠硼解石δ 11 B值分别由3.73±0.26‰升高到4.59±0.08‰和-17.11 ±0.11‰升高到-16.08±0.20‰。此过程1‰的硼同位素升高是由硼-氧骨架结构改变造成的。本实验结果可以指示沉积硼酸盐的形成过程,以及埋藏过程中的硼同位素变化规律。硼酸盐脱水过程中会形成具有更高δ 11 B值的流体,其可能显著影响内生硼矿的硼同位素组成,因此讨论硼同位素地质意义不能与海相- 非海相环境中的硼同位素组成进行简单对比,需要考虑流体演化过程中的硼同位素变化。
    3  Hydrochemical characteristics of spring water and genesis of surface potassium anomaly in the Mengyejing potash deposit and its surrounding areas in Yunnan Province
    伯英 曹养同 吕凤琳
    2021, 95(7):2193-2204.
    [Abstract](323) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    This paper examines the chemical characteristics of spring water and surface sediments in the Mengyejing potash deposit and its surrounding areas, and discusses the genesis of the surface potassium anomaly in the study area. The Mengyejing potash deposit is located in the south of the Lanping- Simao basin in the Yunnan Province, southwestern China. It is until now the only solid potash deposit with industrial mining value in China. Spring water and sediment samples, as well as gas samples from the springs were collected from the study area for chemical and isotopic analysis. Since the salt- bearing strata are widely distributed in the study area, anomaly information can be effectively captured by means of careful surface sample collection, an important factor in the study of the mechanism of potash deposit formation and potassium prospecting. Combined with previous hydrochemical studies, it is proved that the salt spring water in the Mengyejing deposit shows grade I anomaly. The peak and valley values of potassium and concerned components in soil samples from the two profiles perpendicular to the fracture direction show certain regularity. It is inferred that the surface anomalies are somehow related to the recharge of deep fluid (water and gas) along the faults. Noble gas isotopic compositions reveal that the major faults in the study areas may cut deep into the crust and some even into the upper asthenosphere. Hydrogen, oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions of spring water show that the spring water in the study area has deep recharge and water- rock reactions. Additionally, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition and mineralogical evidence indicate that deep fluid may play an important role in the formation of the Mengyejing potash deposit. It is inferred that the deep recharge may be an important source for the surface potassium anomaly in the potash deposit, with the volcanic rocks as one of the important material sources, and the fault belts as the controlling factor.
    4  Application of GPR Method in Special Oily Sewage Pipeline Leakage Detection
    LI Shengkui LIU Mingming PAN Guangshan BI Zhengfeng
    2021, 37(4).
    [Abstract](330) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    The exploration and determination of leakage of underground pipes is always a difficult problem, especially for some special underground pressureless metallic pipes, which are used to transport the high temperature sewage. In this paper, the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is applied to detect the special oily sewage pipes leakage problems. The analysis result showed that the veracity of the exploration is controlled by the diffused form of the contamination and the general conductivity and permittivity of the contamination and the water of pores, while these factors is influenced by the porosity and the saturation of the soil, and the reciprocity between the contamination and the water of pores. These have brought the variation of physical and chemic properties of the contaminated zone. Finally, we based on the comprehensive analysis of the abnormal characteristics caused by different types of leakage pollution sources, the GPR profiles are divided into three types, and the leakage points are delineated and verified according to these typical spectral characteristics. The results showed the feasibility of using GPR method to detect the special oily sewage pipes problems.
    5  Engineering Geological Characteristics and Lithofacies Palaeogeography of Early Holocene Highviscosity Soft Soil in Laizhou Bay
    ZHANG Zhuo XU Jianguo XU Hu ZHU Henghu ZHANG Tao LIUChunhu LIU Zhongye JI Wenlong
    2020, 36(1).
    [Abstract](339) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    6  Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Criteria of Qinlou Copper Gold Deposit in Sanpu Area in Suixi County of Anhui Province
    WANG Lele
    2021, 37(4).
    [Abstract](321) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Qinlou copper gold deposit is a skarn type copper gold deposit dominated by gold in Sanpu area. It is located in the north of Qinlou village in Sipu town of Suixi county in Anhui province. The mining area is located in the east end of the north contact zone of Sanpu rock mass. The rock mass is complex. The main ore controlling structures are the contact zone (multilayer bifurcation intrusion, multilayer mineralization) and the interlayer fissures of surrounding rock. Based on the understanding of geological characteristics and deposit characteristics of Qinlou copper gold deposit, combining with geophysical anomaly characteristics of the deposit, geological and geophysical prospecting indicators of copper gold polymetallic deposit in Sanpu area have. been summarized systematically in this paper. It is showed that the carbonate strata of middle upper Cambrian is an important ore bearing horizon of Cu and Au polymetallic deposits in Sanpu area. The Yanshanian early Cretaceous intermediate acid intrusive body is an important indicator for looking for Cu and Au polymetallic deposits. The ore bodies occur in the edge of local magnetic anomaly or on the local magnetic anomaly ladder belt, and on the Bouguer gravity anomaly ladder belt. It will point out the direction for looking for Cu and Au deposits in this area.
    7  Advances in sedimentological reservoir research in Mahu sag and northwest margin of Junggar Basin
    Zhang Chang-Min Yin Tai-J&#xfc Tang Yong Guo Xu-Guang Zhao Kang Pan Jin Chen Mei-Ling
    2020, 22(1):129-146. DOI: 10.7605/gdlxb.2020.01.008
    [Abstract](358) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    The discovery of a billion-ton conglomerate oil reservoir at central Mahu sag,northwestern margin of Junggar Basin,has driven the research progresses on sedimentary geology and reservoir characterization. This paper reviewed the advances of sedimentology and reservoirs research in the Mahu sag and northwest margin of the Junggar Basin and summarized the following significant advances: (1)new methods in petrological and lithofacies analysis have been proposed for conglomerate reservoirs description; (2)a series of techniques in logging and seismic have been adapted for geophysical reservoir description; (3)obtain new knowledge of the provenance,sedimentary environment,facies and depositional system and models. The retrogradation model of large-scale shallow water fan delta on a gentle slope has been established,which led to the breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; (4)diagenesis theory guided to find new reservoirs in deeper strata. Depositional system in Mahu sag is consistent since Permian to Neogene. Depositional systems include volcanic and volcano-clastic system,fine-grained and evaporite system,coarse-grained alluvial fan,fan delta,braided river delta and others. Climate variation,structure configuration,and lake level fluctuation controlled the formation and evolution of the depositional system. This research provides strong theoretical support for the discovery of Mahu conglomerate oil field. In turn,oil and gas exploration promotes the continuous development of sedimentology and reservoir research. There are at least three petroleum systems in Mahu sag,which were associated with different depositional systems and reservoirs. However,the studies for different petroleum systems,different kinds of reservoirs,and explorational discoveries are not in the same stage. The authors suggested to pay more attention to the older and deeper strata and to use more new theory and technology in sedimentological and reservoir research of this area. The presented theories and technologies need to be further tested in future exploration activity.
    8  Reflections on the CMI Questionnaire on Unmanned Ships from the Perspective of the Maritime Law
    曲亚囡 申傲
    2021, 38(4):27-33.
    [Abstract](340) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    In order to solve the problems of unmanned ships in the application of maritime law,and promote the healthy and sustainable development of maritime transport industry with unmanned ship,this paper explained the legal status of unmanned ships,the determination and identification of captains and the crew,and the collision liability of unmanned ships in the questionnaire of international maritime commission from the perspective of legal theory,and pointed out the uncertainty risk in the application of maritime law to unmanned ships.In the field of maritime law,there are still problems in the determination of the legal status of unmanned ships,the identification of captains and crews,and the application of ship collision liability.The effective way to solve the above problems is to clarify the legal status of unmanned ships and identify shore based operators as seafarers,use the principle of fault liability to determine the collision liability of the unmanned ship and reasonably allocate the collision liability between the ship owner and the producer,so as to reasonably avoid the risk of the unmanned ship.
    9  Primary Study on Suggestions for Ecological Restoration of Damaged Mountain in Zaozhuang City
    ZHU Limin PANG Chengbao JIA Jicheng ZHANG Xiangyi ZHANG Xiaobo ZHANG Fei
    2021, 37(7).
    [Abstract](310) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    There is rich mountain resources in Zaozhuang city. The degree of exploitation and utilization of mineral resources is high. The development and utilization of resources has promoted rapid economic development of Zaozhuang for a long time, but it has also left many geological and environmental problems. Technical methods for the investigation of damaged mountains in Zaozhuang city have been summarized. Based on the survey results and the current mine geological environmental protection and management planning, distribution characteristics of damaged mountains in the city and the existing geological environmental problems have been systematically analyzed. Comprehensively referring to "ecological red line" delineation results, relationship between the damaged mountains and the visible range of "three areas and two lines", based on the estimated amount of resources available for exploitation of the damaged mountains, ecological restoration model for 303 damaged mountains have been put forward.